بازتاب‌های سیاسی مهاجرت‌های بین‌المللی از خاورمیانه به اروپا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

جابجابه‌جایی انسان در فضای جغرافیایی که بعنوان مهاجرت از آن یاد می‌شود، به شکل داوطلبانه یا اجباری است. در سال‌های اخیر، منطقه خاورمیانه به واسطه جنگ‌ها و منازعات در کشورهای افغانستان، عراق، سوریه، یمن و مصر؛ و ظهور گروه‌های افراطی با چالش مواجه شده است. به همین دلیل بخش گسترده‌ای از شهروندان این منطقه به سایر مناطق جهان که از ثبات سیاسی و وضعیت اقتصادی مطلوبی برخوردارند، مهاجرت کرده‌اند. قاره اروپا یکی از مقاصد اصلی این مهاجرتها بوده است. از همین‌رو بررسی بازتاب‌های سیاسی آن در اروپا مسئله پژوهش حاضر است. این تحقیق با استفاده از روش، توصیفی - تحلیلی انجام شده، شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای بوده که با استفاده از اسناد، مقالات و منابع اینترنتی جمع‌آوری شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می-دهد با ورود مهاجرتهای گسترده در اروپا بویژه موج مهاجرت‌های اخیر، قدرت‌گیری روزافزون احزاب راست، خشونت‌ نسبت به مهاجران، تشدید ملی‌گرایی و حساسیت‌های ناشی از آن و در نهایت رشد اندیشه‌های واگرایانه در اتحادیه اروپا از پیامدهای مهاجرت‌های گسترده به اروپا است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Political Reflections on International Migration from the Middle East to Europe

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyyedeh zahra alavi shushtari 2
  • Mohamad-Reza Hafeznia 3
2 Political Geography Department, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professer Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Intrduction
Displacement of human beings across a geographical area is called migration and is performed either voluntarily or compulsory. Various factors are at play in the generating these two types of immigration. Better job opportunities, higher living standards, continuing education, or security and political stability are among the most important factors. In recent years, the Middle East has turned into an insecure and crisis-stricken zone due to war, clashes and conflicts in countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen and Egypt as well as the emergence of extremist and takfiri groups like Taliban, al-Qaeda and ISIS. As a result, a considerable number of Middle Eastern citizens have migrated to other parts of the world with more political stability and favorable economic situation. Europe has always been a main target of international migration especially after the formation of the European Union and the facilitation of the flow of population along its internal borders. On the other hand, political instability in the Middle East has exacerbated the flow of migration to this continent.
Metodology
The research method is descriptive-analytic and it is a fundamental in terms of its nature. The method of data gathering is based upon library studies and the use of books, articles and online resources. Investigating the political reflections of migrations from the Middle East to Europe is the aim of this study which bears significance due to the immigrations' shape and level and the widespread political impact on both the countries of origin and destination.
Results and Discussion
1.The Growing Power of Far-Right Parties
Stable political systems were established in most European countries after World War II and the defeat of fascism. However, by approaching the 1980s and the emergence of globalization, the spread of immigration and the collapse of communism, we saw the emergence of far-right parties in politics, who emphasized principles such as identity and culture instead of race while being anti-immigrants- have had considerable success both in legal and electoral terms.
Right-wing parties view immigrants as a threat in three areas:

Culturally; immigrants are a threat to the cultural homogeneity and cohesion of immigrant countries, because they cannot be absorbed in the culture of the host country;
In terms of security, immigrants and crime are linked;
Economically, immigrants get job opportunities from European citizens.

2.Weakening the Convergence in the European Union
The process of European integration has been severely weakened by the collapse of the Eastern Bloc (the disappearance of the common enemy) as well as the emergence of financial and economic crises. On the other hand, two important indicators of Christianity and culture based on secularism have always been the main criteria in accepting new members in this union. This is why the issue of immigration is seen as a challenge to the culture and national identity of European countries, because the predominant religion of immigrants entering the EU (from the Middle East) is Islam, and they are not willing to leave their Islamic rites, and this faces society and European secular culture with serious challenges.
Conclusions
Lack of promising prospects, prolonged wars and conflicts, inefficiencies of political systems, as well as natural and human hazards have affected population movements from the Middle East to Europe as a safe haven. This has had economic, social, demographic, security and political repercussions in European countries as well as in the European Union as a whole. Manifestations of this rise in power can be traced to the national elections of European countries. In addition, the EU's failure to properly integrate migrants, as well as the lack of consensus on a unified model for the reception and organization of migrants will jeopardize the EU, which has been a good model for integration and interaction between wide differences on a continent, and may as  well push the EU to the brink of collapse.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • migration
  • Political Reflections
  • Middle East
  • Europe
  • Far Right Parties
  • Disintegration in the EU
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