بررسی و تحلیل نگرش ژئوپلیتیکی اسناد بالادستی آمایش سرزمین در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانش‌آموخته دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

آمایش سرزمین به عنوان تجلی سیاستگذاری فضایی، تلاقی گاه نهایی محتوای برنامه‌های توسعه و اسناد بالادستی است که ضمن توسعه و تعادل سرزمینی، بر ارتقا قدرت ملی و وزن ژئوپلیتیکی هر کشوری، نقش بی بدیلی ایفا نماید. رویکرد ژئوپلیتیکی ناظر بر بهره وری قابلیتهای مکانی- فضایی در راستای استفاده بهینه از مزیت های رقابتی در مقیاس های خرد و کلان ارتقاءدهنده قدرت ملی یک کشور و تعیین کننده مناسبات آن با دیگر قدرت ها است. از این رو توجه به جایگاه آن در اسناد سیاستگذاری فضایی کشور با توجه به جغرافیای ایران، از منظر ژئوپلیتیک کاربردی ضروری است. هدف اصلی این مقاله بررسی و تحلیل نگرش اسناد بالا دستی آمایش سرزمین در ایران است. بر این مبنا، این مقاله با تحلیل محتوای کمی و روش توصیفی-تحلیلی به دنبال تحلیل نگرش ژئوپلیتیکی در اسناد بالادستی آمایشی ایران است. لذا، با بررسی آن اسناد، گزاره‌های ژئوپلیتیکی آنها احصاء و ارزیابی گردید. نتایج نشان می‌دهد که 78 بند سیاستی دارای نگرش ژئوپلیتیکی بوده است. اگرچه نگرش ژئوپلیتیکی در اسناد بالادستی آمایشی از سال 1377 در سیاست‌های کلی نظام در بخش انرژی آمده ولی اهمیت این موضوع در سند جهت گیری های ملی آمایش سرزمین با 63 گزاره ژئوپلیتیکی تثبیت شده است که بیانگر درک ارزش‌هایی فضایی-مکانی ایران می‌باشند که در قالب گزاره های ژئوپلیتیکی سیاستگذاری فضایی کشور معرفی شده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating and Analyzing the Geopolitical Attitude of the High-Level Documents of Spatial Planning in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Ghaderi Hajat 1
  • Abed Golkarami 2
1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Department of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modarres University
2 non job
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Spatial planning as a spatial manifestation and the final intersection of development programs (economic, social, cultural, etc.) in the geographical space, not only in the country's planning system, is always emphasized by many experts and executive experts. It should be emphasized in the high-level  documents and general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran for implementation and implementation.Spatial planning or land management, spatial and social justice in all fields, as well as organizing and organizing the geographical space as the habitat of Iranian citizens at the national, regional, local and physical levels, and one of the foundations of the country's development It facilitates the general and political management of the country.Therefore, due to the undeniable link between the development of geographical locations and spaces with their geopolitical status and geopolitical prestige, it is very important to follow the geopolitical trends in the country's planning and spatial documents. So, geopolitical attitudes require one of the most important elements influencing the production of space in the planning system and, most importantly, the high-level documents as determinants, given that space is productive and that no geographical space is formed in a vacuum. The general line of space development should be considered.
Methodology
  Using the analysis of quantitative content and using descriptive and analytical methods, this article seeks to examine and analyze the geopolitical attitude of the high-level documents of Spatial planning in Iran. In this regard, the country's high-level documents such as the constitution, the promising document, the general policies of the system and other basic documents in the field, including 31 documents, have been reviewed and their preparatory statements have been counted and selected, and then among them, geopolitical propositions have been selected and evaluated
Results and findings
The high-level  documents of the country's space policy after the Islamic Revolution, in three general forms of mother and base documents, include the general policies of the system and the basic documents of the field, which are presented in the form of tables.Therefore, Spatial planning in high-level  documents seeks to fully recognize and discover the human and natural capacities and geographical location of the country and the optimal use and exploitation of these resources by relying on regional balances and Preserving the living environment is aimed at the comprehensive development of the country and strengthening self-reliance and eliminating deprivation and inequality.However, statistical propositions were calculated according to the conceptual definition and executive areas related to land management, which included 176 policy propositions in six areas: 1- Principles and policies, 2- Activity, 3 - Environment and biological resources 4- Infrastructure 5- Residential system and 6- Social and cultural; are divided into tables (2-7). Then, in the studies on the high-level  propositions of the high-level  documents (31 documents), the propositions that were of a geopolitical nature were counted, which were equal to 85 propositions of geopolitical policy, and were shown in the tables of numbers 9 to 14.
 
Discussion and analysis
As the research findings show, the general policies of the system in the Vision period with 1 proposition, the general policies of the system in the oil and gas sector 1 proposition, the general policies of the system in the employment sector 1 proposition, the policies The general system in the transportation sector 1 proposition, the document of fundamental change in education 1 proposition, the general policies of the system in the energy sector 2 proposition, the general policies of the system in the passive defense sector with 3 propositions, the general policies of the Sixth Development Plan with 5 propositions, general policies of Spatial planning with 4 propositions and national orientations of Spatial planning with 63 geopolitical propositions (equivalent to nearly 74% of the total geopolitical propositions) pay attention to the category of spatial planning Have.As can be seen in this study, geopolitical attitudes in statistical documents have been reflected in the general policies of the system since 1998 with statements in the energy sector, and then in chronological order in politics. The general systems of the system are seen in transportation, oil and gas, the Vision period, passive defense, employment, land management and the Sixth Development Plan, and in the Spatial planning National Orientation Document with the mentioned frequencies.It seems that one of the reasons for neglecting the geopolitical implications of development is rooted in the weakness and persistence of the above approach in statistical propositions. Of course, the new approaches have to some extent sought compensation, and it is hoped that these categories will be taken more seriously.
Conclusion
The results of the study show that based on the geopolitical attitude of the spatial propositions, it was found that the format of 85 policy clauses (equivalent to 48.29% of the total spatial propositions) can be traced to the geopolitical attitude.Although geopolitical attitudes in statistical documents have been evident in the general policies of the system since 1998 with propositions in the energy sector, the importance of this issue in the context of national orientations of land management with 63 geopolitical propositions (Approximately 74% of all geopolitical statements) are fixed in spatial policy documents.Although the statements made in this study indicate the importance of geopolitical propositions in the country's space policy documents, the propositions that are geopolitical in nature and indicate the geopolitical understanding of Iran's spatial-spatial values It can be presented in the form of geopolitical propositions of the country's spatial policy documents as categorized in the form of policy propositions with a specific reference authority.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • High-level Documents
  • Spatial planning
  • Geopolitical Attitude
  • Geopolitical Propositions
  • Iran
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