نسبت ژئوپلیتیک و راهبردهای ملی توسعه در ایران از دیدگاه آمایش سرزمین

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری تخصصی جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آمایش‌سرزمین رویکردی منطقی و علمی به برنامه‌ریزی در پهنه‌ی سرزمین است که بیانگر این واقعیت است که بدون توجه به ظرفیت‌های سرزمینی، بهره‌وری به حداقل می‌رسد. از این‌رو در مقاله  حاضر سعی شده تا به بررسی و آسیب‌شناسی این برنامه‌ریزی‌ها در فضای سرزمینی ایران از دیدگاه آمایش‌سرزمین بپردازد و به ارائه‌ مدلی راهبردی دست یابد. در این پژوهش به این نتیجه رسیدیم  که تأکید صرف بر کارکردهای سنتی سرزمینی مانند کشاورزی و فعالیت‌های وابسته به آب و عدم توجه به کارویژه‌های جدید و منطبق بر توان سرزمین و اقتضائات جهان امروز مانند تجارت و توریسم و غیره و همچنین سازماندهی سیاسی غیر منطبق بر نواحی و واقعیت‌های جغرافیایی کشور، سبب بروز آسیب‌های ژئوپلیتیکی کنونی شده است. برای ارائه‌ مدل راهبردی از روش تحلیل راهبردی سوات «SOWT» و برای الویت‌بندی راهبردها از ماتریس «QSPM» استفاده شده است. روش تحقیق این مقاله نیز تحلیلی- توصیفی است. یافته­های تحقیق گویای آن است که «راهبردهای ملی توسعه در ایران با ارائه‌ درکی جامع از قوت‌ها و ضعف‌های داخلی سرزمین و تهدیدها و فرصت‌های خارجی و نیز آسیب‌های ناشی از برنامه‌ریزی انسانی در فضای جغرافیایی، زمینه را برای ارائه یک مدل راهبردی منطبق بر واقعیت‌های جغرافیایی و آمایش سرزمین در فضای سرزمینی ایران فراهم می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitics and National Strategies for the Territorial Development in Iran from the Point of View of Spatial Planning

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Rashidi 1
  • Morad Delalat 2
1 Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
2 ,PHD Student of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran,, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Failure to pay attention to the ecological and human weaknesses of a land and its non-conformist planning cause environmental, economic, cultural-social, political and security damage. For the rational management of the land and the creation of a sustainable development and security, the comprehensive look at the territorial characteristics seems essential. In Iran, various plans and programs have been drafted and implemented since the year 1964, but these programs have never led to a sustainable and balanced biology. Since the inception of these programs, so far, not only geographic justice has not been formed, but  also has caused the gap between the geographical areas and the core-periphery. That is, how much of these programs are consistent with the scientific and real world (the regulation of human relations and space and human activities in space), and are they consistent with the scientific principles of geography, how is the territorial planning and how the distribution of population, human activities and development perspectives are based on the ecological and biological capabilities and geopolitical requirements of the land of Iran? In this research, geopolitical codes are defined in relation to geopolitical structure and logically the positive and negative effects of geopolitical codes on the transformation of geopolitical forms and perspectives of Iran have been investigated. Here, the geopolitical weight of the country, which is the result of the sum of the geopolitical codes contained in the geopolitical map of the country, expresses the small weight of this comprehensive geopolitical map.
Methodology
The present research is descriptive-analytic, and is applied in terms of its operational capability. The data collection tools are three types of check-up (for qualitative study), and tables, charts, statistics and information (for quantitative study) and field findings. SWOT method is used in combination with the geopolitical framework of the article and in the form of positive and negative codes to analyze weaknesses and internal strengths and threats and opportunities. In completing SWAT, the QSPM method has been used to prioritize the extracted strategies of geopolitical codes in the form of SWOT.
Results and discussion
Comprehensive study of geopolitical codes, strategic factors and proposed strategies and their formulation show that planning in the territory of Iran has been roughly reversed in the direction of reversal of geographic realities and requirements. Meanwhile, in the process of territorial planning of Iran, the relationship between human, space and activity is not well defined. The type, shape, size and location of activities in the territorial space of the country are not consistent with geographical and historical realities. In general, the scholar believes that the country's territorial capabilities and strengths are in the perimeter of the environment and borders, margins and shores. Based on the conceptual model of the paper territorial planners and the Government of Iran have to achieve its goals and aspirations and securing the four interests of ontology security, material security, development and recognition, in the field of territorial development and management seeking for security (ontology and material), sustainable development, and gaining geopolitical position and role in the region and in the world. In this way, it is also confirmed that geopolitical codes, providing a comprehensive understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the land, the foreign threats and opportunities of the, as well as the damage caused by human planning in the terrestrial environment, provide a framework for the presentation of a strategic model corresponding to provides geographical and territorial realities in the land of Iran. 
Conclusions
In the territorial planning system of Iran, no strategic, comprehensive, coherent and transparent program has been presented so far. This means that Iran does not have a strategic document with the specifications. Of course, paying attention to the country's political and fabrication scenes is a damage to the political structure of space. Because the whole of the national space and the transnational informal realm must first be formed, then the state and political boundaries should be shaped, so that these divisions could be the basis of the state. The Land Register is a national and regional project and is not applicable to small or non-geographic areas such as current provinces. Therefore, Iran has to admit that there is lack of a strategic vision because of the lack of a strategic, comprehensive, coherent and transparent strategy and document. Without strategic vision, the weaknesses, strengths, threats and territorial opportunities, or geopolitical codes cannot be identified, and also a comprehensive and strategic map or comprehensive geopolitical map cannot be achieved. The general approach to planning in the terrestrial environment of the country is not affected by a logical, scientific and educational program, and, in contrast, has followed the procedures and elements that led to the concentration of population and activities in particular areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geospatial
  • Geopolitics
  • Pathology
  • planning
  • Territorial Space
  • Strategic model
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