بررسی نقش تنگۀ مالاکا با رویکردی ژئوپلیتیکی و استراتژیکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانش آموخته دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در بررسی و مطالعه تنگه های بین المللی پرداختن به نقش ژئوپلیتیکی و استراتژیک آنها، دارای اهمیت فراوانی است. چون تنگه ها فضاهای توزیع قدرت هستند و در آنجا، رقابت دولتها در استفاده از پتانسیل های فضای جغرافیایی برای رسیدن به منافع بیشتر و در نهایت رسیدن به قدرت در روابط بین الملل کاملاً نمایان است. حتی در مواردی، کشورهایی که در پیرامون تنگه ها مستقر نیستند، از راه های متعدد وارد می شوند تا نسبت به کشورهای دیگر از مزایای آن عقب نمانند. به عبارتی، نوعی کشمکش و رقابت بر سر استفادۀ بیشتر از تنگه های بین المللی، بین کشورها بویژه کشورهای حاشیه تنگه وجود دارد. بنابراین، تنگه های استراتژیک در قدرت ملل و سرنوشت آن ها و نیز سیاست خارجی کشورهای ساحلی و همچنین، موازنه قدرت منطقه ای و جهانی نقش تعیین کننده ای دارند، در نتیجه، مطالعۀ آنها برای جغرافیدانان سیاسی و ژئوپلیتیسین ها ضروری است. یکی از تنگه های مهم جهان، «تنگه مالاکا» است که بررسی آن از نظر ژئوپلیتیکی و استراتژیکی باعث دست یافتن به نکات مهمی خواهد شد.
   در این مقاله، با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و همچنین با استفاده از آمار و ارقام برای ترسیم نمودارهای ترکیبی سعی بر آن است که به بررسی نقش، ویژگی های ژئوپلیتیکی و اهمیت تنگه مالاکا برای دولت های ساحلی و شرایط و عواملی که نقش استژاتژیکی تنگه را با  چالش و بحران روبرو ساخته است، پرداخته شود. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که، «تنگه مالاکا، به عنوان یکی از تنگه های مهم بین المللی دارای پتانسیل های راهبردی و استراتژیکی در عرصه منطقه ای و جهانی است و دولت های ساحلی برای مبارزه با فرایندهای چالش زا در این تنگه باید به برنامه های هدفمند و استراتژیکی تکیه کنند».    

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of Malacca Strait with a Geopolitical and Strategic Approach

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hasan Kamran Dastjerdi 1
  • Narjessadat Hosseini Nasrabady 2
1 Associate professor of political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

One of the issues discussed in geopolitics is the role of international straits (canals); as such, it is of great importance to investigate their geopolitical and strategic role. It is because the straits are the places of distribution of power, where the competition of governments is very evident in using the potential of geographic space to achieve greater benefits and ultimately to gain power in international relations. Even in some cases, countries not located around the straits enter many ways in order not to lag behind other countries. That is to say, there is a kind of conflict and competition between countries over the use of straits, especially the countries bordering the strait. Therefore, the strategic straits play a decisive role in the power of nations and their fate and also in the foreign policy of the coastal states along with the balance of regional and global power, as a result, their study is essential for political geographers and geopoliticians. One of the most important straits in the world is the Malacca Strait whose investigation strategically and geographically provides important points. Using descriptive-analytical method and also based on statistics and figures for plotting diagrams in this paper, it has been tried to study the role, geopolitical features, and importance of Malacca Strait for coastal states and conditions as well as factors causing challenges and crises for the strategic role of the strait. According to the results, as one of the major international straits, the Malacca Strait has strategic potentials in the regional and global arena and coastal governments need to rely on targeted and strategic plans to combat the challenging processes in this strait.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Strait
  • Malacca
  • Seas
  • strategy
  • Geopolitics
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