پویایی‌های نظم در سطح جهانی-منطقه‌ای و دگردیسی نقش کنشگران منطقه‌ای خلیج فارس (مطالعه موردی: امارات متحده عربی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین‌الملل، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه روابط بین‌الملل، پژوهشگاه علوم‌ انسانی و مطالعات فرهنگی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه نظم بین‌الملل تحولات مهمی را در سطح کلان و مناطق پشت سر می‌گذارد. ورود نظم بین‌الملل به دوران گذار پساآمریکایی و پویایی‌های محیطی در سطح مناطق عدم قطعیت‌های اساسی را با خود به همراه دارد که الهام‌بخش تغییر نقش بسیاری از کنشگران در سطح مناطق و به‌طور خاص منطقه خلیج‌فارس بوده است. ازجمله مهم‌ترین این کنشگران می‌توان به امارات متحده عربی اشاره کرد. براین اساس پژوهش حاضر با مبنا قرار دادن نظریه نقش و بکار گیری آن در دوران گذار نظم بین‌الملل به دنبال پاسخ‌گویی به این سؤال مهم است که: تحولات و پویایی‌های نظم در سطح جهانی و منطقه‌ای چه تأثیری بر نقش و کنش‌های رفتاری بازیگران در عرصه منطقه‌ای خلیج‌فارس به همراه داشته است؟ و فرضیه‌ای که در پاسخ به آن مورد آزمایش قرار خواهد گرفت بدین‌صورت قابل طرح می‌باشد: پویایی‌های نظم در سطح کلان و منطقه‌ای منجر به تغییر ساختار اجتماعی نظم شده و این امر به‌عنوان محرکه‌ای برای تغییر نقش برخی از کنشگران منطقه‌ای از جمله امارات متحده عربی عمل کرده است تا نقش خود را از یک کنشگر میانه‌رو و تابع در تحولات منطقه‌ای به یک کنشگر سیاسی، نظامی و امنیتی طی دهه گذشته تغییر دهد. هدف پژوهش نشان دادن تغییر در تصورات از نقش کنشگران منطقه‌ای(امارات متحده عربی) و پیامدهای آن برای نظم منطقه‌ای است. روش پژوهش نیز در قالب رویکردهای تبیینی-تحلیلی خواهد بود و شیوه گردآوری داده‌ها، کتابخانه‌ای و مبتنی بر آمار و اسناد بین‌المللی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Dynamism of Order in World and Regional Levels and Change in Roles of Regional Actors of Persian Gulf (Case Study: United Arab Emirates)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamidreza karimi 1
  • Seyed Masoud Mousavi Shafaee 2
  • Mohsen Eslami 2
  • Ali Akbar Asadi 3
1 PhD Student in International Relations, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of International Relations, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
Nowadays, international order has passed serious changes in both world and regional levels. The entrance of international order to the era of post-American transition and environmental dynamisms in regions have made some basic uncertainties inspiring changes in roles of most of actors in regions, particularly in Persian Gulf. United Arab Emirates is one of the most significant examples of the mentioned actors. Using the theory of role, this research seeks to investigate what effects have the changes and dynamisms of orders in world and region had on roles and acts of actors in the region of Persian Gulf. The hypothesis is that: dynamisms of orders in world and regional levels have changed the social structure of order and consequently this issue has provoked some regional actors like UAE to start promoting its role from a moderate and dependent actor in regional upheavals to a security, military, and political actor during the last 10 years. The research is explanatory-analytical and the method of data collection procedure is based on library and online international statistics and documents.      
Methodology
The research is descriptive-analytic. Using the descriptive-analytic approach, the researcher seeks to answer why and how is established a causal relationship between independent and dependent variables, and it is attempted to describe a process and develop a concept.
Results and discussion
Two factors at the systemic and regional levels have changed the role of the UAE. 1) Changing the regional role of the United States of America in the Persian Gulf region; 2) Regional developments such as the Arab Spring and military conflicts in Iraq, Syria and Yemen, the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood, Iran's growing influence, and competition and conflict with Qatar. In addition, to consolidate its new role, the UAE has taken actions including: 1) Intervention in the Yemeni civil war; 2) Finding new regional and trans-regional allies such as Russia and Israel.
Conclusions
The findings of this study show that changes in order at the systemic and regional levels change perceptions of the role of regional actors. In this regard, the role and foreign policy of the United Arab Emirates were discussed. In particular, the UAE's foreign policy behavior was largely influenced by the structure of the international system, and they traditionally followed the dominant power; but changes at the systemic level and the dynamics of order at the environmental level led the country to take on a role beyond the subordinate government at the regional level. Hence, the UAE is trying to impose its political and security order through proxy forces, military organizations and the support of affiliated politicians. But the UAE's ambitions and behavior to become an influential country in the Persian Gulf region can have a significant impact on regional order. For example, bringing Israel into the Gulf security environment could provoke a reaction from pro-Palestinian groups and lead to new tensions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • World order
  • Regional Order
  • Persian Gulf
  • USA
  • United Arab Emirates
  1. Abdi, A; Shirzad, S (2016). the Role of Geographical Spaces in PowersCompetition; Case Study: Iraq, Geopolitics Quarterly, Vol 13, No 3. [In Persian]
  2. Al Mashat, A. M. (2008). Politics of constructive engagement: the foreign policy of the United Arab Emirates. Future, 1, 1.
  3. Almezaini, K. (2017). The transformation of UAE foreign policy since 2011. The changing security dynamics of the Persian Gulf, 191-204.
  4. Almezaini, K. S. (2012). The UAE and foreign policy: foreign aid, identities and interests. .Routledge.
  5. Almezaini, K. S. (2014). The UAE and foreign policy: foreign aid, identities and interests. Routledge.
  6. Asadi, B (2002). Persian Gulf Issues, Tehran: Samt. [In Persian]
  7. Barzegar, K; Ghavam,A; Zakeryan, M; Mousav,S.H (2008). The Recent Upheavals in the Arab World, Regional Balance of Power and New Grouping in the Middle East,Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol 14, No 3. [In Persian]
  8. Bergman, R.; Hubbard, B. (2020). Israel Announces Partnership With U.A.E. Which Throws Cold Water On It. The New York Times. June 26.
  9. Bohl, R. (2017). The Weird Worries of Sheikh MBZ. Atlantic Sentinel.
  10. Cook, S.A. (2020). What’s Behind the New Israel-UAE Peace Deal? Council on Foreign Relations, https://www.cfr.org/in-brief/whats-behind-new-israel-uae-peace-deal.
  11. Creutz, K; Iso-Markku, T; Raik, K; Tiilikainen, T. (2019). The changing global order and its implications for the EU. Valtioneuvoston kanslia.
  12. Darwich, M. (2019). Great and Regional Powers in the Middle East: The Evolution of Role Conceptions. Shifting Global Politics and the Middle East, 23.
  13. Ghasemi, F (2014). Theories of International Relations: Theoretical Foundations of Order and International Regimes, Tehran: Mizan Legal Foundation. [In Persian]
  14. Gholamnia, H; Pirmohammadi, S (2020). Leadership’s Change and Change in the UAE Regional Strategy (2020-2014), Foreign Relations Quarterly, Voi 11,No 4.  [In Persian]
  15. Glaser, C. L. (2019). A flawed framework: Why the liberal international order concept is misguided. International Security, 43(4), 51-87.
  16. Gregory Gause III, F. (2014). American policy in the Persian Gulf: from balance of power to failed hegemony. In Gulf politics and economics in a changing world (pp. 181-196).
  17. He, K. (2018). Role conceptions, order transition and institutional balancing in the Asia-Pacific: A new theoretical framework. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 72(2), 92-109.
  18. Holsti, K. J. (1970). “National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy. International Studies Quarterly 14 (3): 233–309.
  19. James, W (2018). ‘UAE ready to take on greater security burden in Middle East: minister’, Reuters, 26 July. https://www.reuters.com/article/yeneb-security-britain/uae-ready-to-take-on-greater-security-burden-in-middle-east-minister-idINKBN1KG1T0?edition-redirect=in.
  20. Joukar, M; Bahareh, S (2019). The Role of Regional Powers in Shaping the Middle East Security Order (2003 To 2011),Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol 16, No 3. [In Persian]
  21. Juneau, T. (2020). The UAE and the War in Yemen: From Surge to Recalibration. Survival, 62(4), 183-208.
  22. Karimi, H.R; Mousavi Shafaee, S.M; Eslami, M (2019). Parallel Institutionalization; A Step on the Way of International Order Peaceful Transition (A ChinaBased Chain Value Vs. American Order), Biannual Journal of International Political Economy Studies, Vol.2, Issue 2. [In Persian]
  23. Kenneth M, P (2015). ‘U.S. Policy toward a Turbulent Middle East,’ Brookings (blog), https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/u-spolicy-toward-a-turbulent-middle-east
  24. Kinninmont, J. (2019). The Gulf Divided The Impact of the Qatar Crisis. Research Paper.
  25. Lynch, M. (2018). The new Arab order: Power and violence in today's Middle East. ForeignAff. 97, 116.
  26. Mason, R. (2018). Breaking the mold of small state classification? The broadening influence of United Arab Emirates foreign policy through effective military and bandwagoning strategies. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 24(1), 95-112.
  27. J, J (2019). “Bound to Fail: The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order”, International Security, Vol. 43, No. 4.
  28. Mossalanejad, A (2017). The Middle East Security and Donald Trump’s Grand Strategy, Geopolitics Quarterly, Vol 13, No 4. [In Persian]
  29. Mousavi Shafaee, S.M (2008). Developmentalist Approach to The Foreign Policy of Iran: Necessities Challenges, Politic Quarterly, Vol 40, Issue 2. [In Persian]
  30. Nouralivand, Y (2017). The Qatar crisis, the reasons for its formation, its consequences for the region and Iran, National Security Watch, Vol 63. [In Persian]
  31. Pollack, M .K (2015). ‘U.S. Policy toward a Turbulent Middle East,’ Brookings, https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/u-spolicy-toward-a-tur bulent-middle-east/.
  32. Ragab, E. (2017). Beyond money and diplomacy: Regional policies of Saudi Arabia and UAE after the Arab spring. The International Spectator, 52(2), 37-53.
  33. Ramani, S. (2020). Russia and the UAE: An Ideational Partnership. Middle East Policy, 27(1), 125-140.
  34. Rickli, J. M; Almezaini, K. (2017). Theories of small states’ foreign and security policies and the Gulf States. İçinde The Small Gulf States: Foreign and Security Policies Before and After the Arab Spring, derleyenler Khalid S. Almezaini ve Jean-Marc Rickli, 8-30.
  35. Roberts, D. B. (2020). Bucking the Trend: The UAE and the Development of Military Capabilities in the Arab World. Security Studies, 29(2), 301-334.
  36. Salehi, H (2011). The Strategic Relationship between the United Arab Emirates and the Islamic Republic of Iran (2000-2011), Strategic Studies Quarterly, Vol 14, Issue 5. [In Persian]
  37. Sim, L. C; Fulton, J. (2020). Implications of a regional order in flux: Chinese and Russian relations with the United Arab Emirates. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 1-19.
  38. Stiglitz, J.; Kaldor, M. (Eds). (2013). the quest for security: Protection without protectionism and the challenge of global governance. Columbia University Press.
  39. Thies, C. (2010). Role Theory and Foreign Policy. In The International Studies Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Denmark. Oxford: Blackwell. 6335–6356.

Yazdanpanah Dero, Q; Zaeri, B; Rahimi, R (2017). Geopolitical Factors of U.S Tendency to Form an Arabian Military Coalition in Persian Gulf and its Consequences on Iran's Security, Geopolitics Quarterly, Vol 14, No 2. [In Persian].40