بی‌هویتی مکانی و ناکامی جنبش‌های سیاسی مطالعه موردی: حرکت‌های اعتراضی مردم بحرین پس از تخریب میدان لؤلؤ

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

هویت​های مکانی برآیند ادراک، احساس و نوعی تعلق جمعی به مکانی خاص است که متناسب با فرهنگ سیاسی هر جامعه​ای، کنش​های سیاسی متفاوتی را در پی دارد. جنبش​های سیاسی با حضور و در ادامه، اشغال و مقاومت در مکان‌های مرکزی، خاصه در شهرهای پایتختی، به آن مکان​ها هویتی اعتراضی و نمادین می‌دهند و آنجا را مقرّی برای برآوردن خواسته​های خود از طرف دولت مرکزی می‌دانند؛ یکی از مصادیق این مکان​های اعتراضی و با هویت، میدان لؤلؤ بحرین در جریان حرکت​های اعتراضی این کشور در بهار عربی است؛ که در تاریخ 18 مارس 2011 توسط دولت مرکزی تخریب شد. آنچه در بررسی رویدادنگاری حرکت​های اعترضی مردم بحرین و رفتار دولت در تخریب میدان لؤلؤ مشاهده می‌شود، این است که حکام آل​خلیفه متأثر از تحولات همزمانی که در دیگر کشورها در منطقه خاورمیانه در حال وقوع بوده و با علم به اینکه مکان​های با هویت در پیروزی جنبش​های سیاسی و حرکت​های اعتراضی نقش محوری دارند؛ اقدام به تخریب میدان لؤلؤ کردند و بر اساس مطالب گردآوری شده به​صورتی شد که تخریب میدان نمادین لؤلؤ یکی از دلایل اصلی ناکامی حرکت​های اعتراضی در بحرین بوده است. مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی و با شیوه رویدادنگاری از خبرگزاری​های معتبر بین​المللی به گردآوری داده​ها پرداخته است. روش تجزیه و تحلیل پژوهش از نوع کیفی بوده که براساس استدلال، منطق و تبیین نگارندگان پس از گردآوری اطلاعات صورت گرفته است.


کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Place Nonidentity and Failure of Political Movements; Case Study: Bahrain Protest Movement After Destroying the Lolo Square

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamadreza Hafeznia 1
  • Mohamadreza Faraji 2
1 Full Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 M.A of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction 
Social Searching for identity and its roots sets in “habitat” as a conceptual subject in geography and it is used increasingly. Identity has the link with three foundation characteristics: (geographical) place, space (networks and social relationship) and time(history). So identity be affected by such characteristics. Specifically, each place takes its identityfromthree major factors: 1- Natural specific factors, 2- Observableactivitiesandfunctions3- Concepts and symbols. Therefore, the man can be considering as the most important factorin place. People have different images from differentplaces in their minds. Whereas the emotions have the effect on the environment perception in one hand and shaping the human mentality picture in other hand, such mentality pictures giving the identity to place. Such a place arises some other conceptions of identity like: sense of place, place attachment, dependency of place and so on. In this regard,we canmention the certain placesthataresignificanceto their peopleand they are important role in developing their nationsideologues and values.  
In other words, some places have the strategic functions in emerging political movements and their persistence to achieve their goals. Such places that are mostly central places (squares and main streets) in the capital cities, they become arenas of political oppositions. Such asRed Square in Moscow, Triumph organ in Paris, Tian a Men SquareinChina and so on that are considered as a symbol ofnationalism.
The aim ofsuch a research is explanation the role of central places at political movements as well as success and failure in achieving their goals particularly based on Bahrain political movements in Lolo Square. Accordingly, the main question is this: at what extent destroyingLolo Square by the ruling Al Khalifa has effected on the Bahrain political movements?
 
Methodology
The hypothesis that prepare to answer such a research question is: destroying Pear Roundabout as a main symbol of Bahrain protesters and their identity due to disperse the protest movement and it would seem that such a position brings about repressing the political movement by ruling Al Khalifa. In comparison to other political movements in Arabian countries, Bahrain political movement admitted to reform the political structure. 
 
Findings
To explanation such a research hypothesis has been attempted to design the theoretical model on the basis of theoretical literature which is consist of the geographical impact of central places on the political movements. 
It is worth noting that, such a model illustrates the relationship between place and (political) identity, so in order to prove the application such a model has been attempted to survey the political trends in Bahrain through showing the timeline from the beginning (in 2011) to the late of 2012(indeed its include before and after destroying the Lolo Square). 
 
Conclusion
In conclusion, we could found from such a research that: Bahrain Government by considering such a fact that Lolo Square has the core role in political movement to achieve the success. apart from so, it has emerged as an identity symbol among protesters, thus decided to destroy such an identity symbol in order to control the political movement and disperse it. Finally, such an event (destroy the identity place) lead to control and disperse the protest population. As well as we couldn’t observe any significant political changes in Bahrain after destroying in spite of subsequent demonstrates.  
this research was done by descriptive and analysis method. Also the data was collected by means of log method from the international credible agencies. The analysis method at this research is qualitative analysis that is done based on reason, logic and explanation of the authors after data collection.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Place Identity
  • Central Place
  • Lolo Square
  • Political Movement
  • Bahrain Government