رهیافت هم‌تکمیلی، مبانی و کارکردهای آن با تأکید بر منطقه جنوب‌شرق ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

میزان و نحوه توزیع منابع محیطی و جغرافیایی در سطح زمین فاقد الگوی همسان بوده و از نابرابری‌های گسترده برخوردار است  .به‌همین جهت، هیچ مکان جغرافیایی بر روی زمین وجود ندارد که به تنهایی قادر به تأمین همه نیازهای ضروری ساکنان خود باشد. از این‌رو همه مکانها برای به‌دست آوردن نیازمندیهای خود به‌طور جدی به مکانهای دیگر وابسته‌اند. پرسشی که در این زمینه مطرح می‌شود آن است که، مکانهای جغرافیایی چگونه و با اتکا به چه مکانیسمی می‌توانند به رفع نیازهای خود بپردازند؟ در پاسخ به این پرسش، طی نوشته حاضر، رهیافتی موسوم به «رهیافت هم‌تکمیلی» پیشنهاد و ارائه شده و هدف اصلی این مقاله نیز تبیین و معرفی ابعاد نظری و کارکردی رهیافت فوق است. از آنجا که همه مکانها ی جغرافیایی واجد دو دسته از مؤلفه‌های محیطی شامل: 1- منابع و مزیت‌های محیطی؛ 2- کاستی، ضعف و محدودیت‌های محیطی می‌باشند، لذا می‌توانند از طریق برقراری همکاری و مناسبات دو سویه، چرخه‌ای از تعاملات هم‌تکمیلی را پدید آورند که طی آن، هر مکان جغرافیایی مکمل مکان دیگر محسوب گردد. در حقیقت هدف اصلی این رهیافت آن است که، روابط مبتنی بر رقابت‌های غیرسازنده میان مکانها را به روابطی توأم با رفاقت و همکاری تبدیل نماید و روشن است در این‌صورت، دستیابی به سطوح قابل قبولی از توسعه متوازن ، ثبات و امنیت پایدار در محیط‌های جغرافیایی در دسترس خواهد بود.
از آنجا که رهیافت مزبور ماهیتی کاربردی و حل مسأله دارد؛ لذا از قابلیت تبیین‌کنندگی نظری و سازماندهی عملی بالایی برخوردار بوده و امکان به‌کارگیری آن در  همه مقیاس‌های جغرافیایی از خردترین سطوح فروملی تا بالاترین سطوح فرا ملی وجود دارد. همچنین به‌طور مشخص در چهار حوزه سیاست،‌ اقتصاد، فرهنگ و امنیت قابل پیاده‌سازی است. طی مقاله حاضر، نحوه پیاده‌سازی رهیافت مذکور در خصوص ناحیه جنوب شرق ایران و با هدف حل مسأله توسعه‌نیافتگی این منطقه از کشور و  نیز تعیین مناطق مکمل داخلی و خارجی آن و زمینه‌های مشارکت و هم‌تکمیلی این منطقه با مناطق مکمل، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Complementary Approach: Fundamentals and Functions; with emphasis on South East of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmoud Vasegh 1
  • Seyed Yahya Safavi 2
  • Seyed Salman Hosseini 3
1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
2 Full Professor of Political Geography, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran, Iran
3 Ph.D Student of Political Geography, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The level and the way of distribution of the geographic and environmental resource on earth do not follow any similar pattern and there are vast inequalities. So, there is on geographic space on the earth which could be solely capable of providing the necessary requirements of its residents. Therefore, all spaces depend on other spaces to meet their needs. The question which arises in this regard is that “geographic spaces how and based on what mechanisms could provide their own needs?” In response to this question an approach called “complementary approach” is proposed. The main goal of the article is explaining and presenting functional and theoretical dimensions of the above approach. Because all geographic spaces possess two sets of environmental components including resources and environmental advantages, and weakness, environmental limitations, they can create cycles of complementary interactions by means of interrelated cooperation in which every geographic space is considered as a complementary factor for other spaces. The main goal of this approach is to change the unconstructive competitions which exist among spaces to the friendly relations. And it is clear that in such a situation symmetrical development, peace, stability and security in geographic spaces are possible. Regarding that the approach has functional and problem-solving nature, so it has the power of theoretical explanation and practical organization and also could be applied on all geographic seals. Also, it is applicable in four political, economic, and cultural and security spheres. This article tried to apply this approach on Southeast region of Iran, and its object is solving the issue of underdevelopment and poverty in this region and determining its internal and external complementary regions.
Methodology
The research is applied in its nature, and is descriptive- analytic in its method. It should be noted, since the fundamentals and provisions of the article are based on assumptions and reflections of the authors, references which are used are limited. In other words, this article has a theoretical character.
Results and Discussion
Severe limitations on the geographic resources and growth in consumption in different areas, on the one hand put resources under the pressure and from the other hand is the main cause of conflict, competition and war. Accordingly, the research attempts to solve or reduce the current environmental issues, and to provide the proper solution. Satisfactory solution in this regard is a complementary mechanism and approach. The fundamental hypothesis of the above approach is that irrespective of applied plans and policies of the states, because existing resources on earth are not equally distributed, no geographic space is solely capable of providing its residents needs, therefore it is completely essential for geographic spaces to solve their problems in a vast cooperative framework. This collaboration can be considered in security and other political, economic and cultural spheres and also can be proposed in different national scales. One of the most important issues for policy makers and planners is inequality and lack of balances in development levels among geographic spaces. After Second World War, the mind of many governmental bodies and researchers has been occupied by the issue of development of the deprived regions, and different models and patterns have been presented in this regard. In most offered models and patterns, the development of deprived areas were considered based on spot and singular moods, but in most cases, this model is lacked comprehensive efficiency.
Unlike previous models, the model of this article is the cluster model in which the geographic regions and spaces reach to the level of the symmetrical development within the framework of a series of complementary sites and through multilateral cooperation. In addition, stability and security in relations between places are possible. South East of Iran is investigated in this article based on the complementary approach, and apply of the above approach in this region is proposed with the aim of solving the problem of underdevelopment in the region.
Conclusion
The results show that if complementary approach is implemented based on exact information, inequalities, poverty, the issue of undeveloped areas and also disputations and challenges among geographic regions are reduced. To the extent that struggles, gaps and unconstructive contestation among areas are placed with collaboration and cooperation. This article investigated the issue of poverty and underdevelopment in Southeast of Iran in the framework of complementary approach.
According to the results, the capacity and advantages of the region along with its restriction and environmental limitation were explored, and also its internal and external complementary regions along with corporative und collaborative backgrounds were determined and decrypted. According to authors if all phases of complementary approach and its executive rings are properly implemented, this approach would play a vital and unique role in solving problems emanated from poverty and underdevelopment, in particular in underdeveloped regions. Also it would result in peace, stability and security in geographic environments, and in particular in international relations.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • strategy
  • Complementary approach
  • Interdependency
  • Geographic resources
  • South east of Iran