بررسی سیمای انسانی مرزهای خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

نقش عوامل جغرافیایی در بروز تنش بین کشورها بسیار قابل توجه است. بویژه از آن جهت که تنش بر سر عوامل جغرافیایی در زمره بحرانهای ژئوپلیتیکی قرار میگیرد که این بحرانها بسیار دیر پا بوده و بهخاطر اینکه پای ارزشهای جغرافیایی در میان است، حکومتها نیز کمتر میتوانند در گفتگوهای سیاسی بر سر این موضوعات بده بستان کنند. چرا که در داخل کشور متهم به خیانت به سرزمین و منافع ملی میشوند. در طول قرن بیستم و اوایل قرن بیست و یکم تنشهای بسیاری در منطقه خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا بهوقوع پیوسته است
که منشاء بسیاری از آنها بهصورت مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم به عوامل جغرافیایی و بویژه مرزها مرتبط است. مرزهای خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا عمدتاً محصول توافق استعمارگران بوده و بدون توجه به سیمای انسانی ترسیم شدهاند و در موارد بسیاری انسانهای متعلق به قوم، زبان و مذهب و... را از هم جدا کردهاند و از نوع مرزهای تحمیلی محسوب میشوند. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی– تحلیلی، بهدنبال تحلیل وضعیت خطوط مرزی منطقه خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا در ارتباط با سیمای انسانی مرزهای این منطقه میباشد. برای این منظور 53 خط مرزی در این منطقه به طول 31569 کیلومتر مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است و نتایج آن در قالب جداول و نمودارها ارائه شده است که حاکی از تحمیلی بودن اکثر مزرهای این منطقه و عدم تطابق آنها با سیمای انسانی درزمینههای قومی، زبانی و مذهبی میباشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Middle East and North Africa Boundaries from Human Features Perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Mokhtari Hashi 1
  • Golnaz Naseroleslami 2
1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 M.A of Political Geography, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The geographical factors play considerable role in tensions between countries. Especially since the tension is placed on geographical factors, classified as geopolitical crises and because of the involvement of the geographical values, these kinds of crises are very persistent and therefore the governments could rarely make give and take in political discussions on these issues. Because in inside of the country and among its nation can easily accused of treason to the national interests and the homeland. During the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries many tensions have taken in the Middle East and North Africa that the origin of most of them directly or indirectly linked to geographical factors, and particularly on borders. The Middle East and North Africa borders are often the outcome of the colonial powers agreements on paper and drawn regardless to the human features of the border areas. Therefore in many cases the borders separate same people in ethnicity, linguistic and religious. These kinds of boundaries known as superimposed boundaries that there are many of them in this region which can be studied and in this regard the present research studying 53 borderlines in length of 31569 kilometers.
Methodology
The research method is descriptive-analytic and data gathering procedure is based on library and documentation. The data analysis is qualitative and quantitative and the results shown in the form of graphs and tables.
Findings
The study of human features of the Middle East and North Africa borders on ethnicity, linguistic and religious shows that from 53 borderlines, from ethnic point of view, 43 borderlines in length of 29361 kilometers (93% length of borderlines) are mismatch; it means that this borderlines separate same ethnic groups, 6 borderlines (3% length of borderlines) in length of 821 kilometers are match; it means that this borderlines separate diffrent ethnic groups and 4 borderlines (4% length of borderlines) in length of 1387 kilometers are both match and mismatch at the same time, it means that in some parts of borderline we can show mismatch and in the other parts of that borderline we can show match.
From linguistic point of view, 36 borderlines in length of 22133 kilometers (70% length of borderlines) are mismatch, 8 borderlines (7% length of borderlines) in length of 2255 kilometers are match and 9 borderlines (23% length of borderlines) in length of 7181 kilometers are both match and mismatch at the same time, it means that in some parts of borderline we can show mismatch and in the other parts of that borderline we can show match.
From religious point of view, 40 borderlines in length of 24141 kilometers (76% length of borderlines) are mismatch, 6 borderlines (5% length of borderlines) in length of 1470 kilometers are match and 7borderlines (19% length of borderlines) in length of 5958 kilometers are both match and mismatch at the same time, it means that in some parts of borderline we can show mismatch and in the other parts of that borderline we can show match.
Conclusion
The results of the study of 53 borderlines in the Middle East and North Africa shows that most of borderlines in the region are superimposed boundaries that drawn by colonial powers on papers without paying attention to human features in the ground. Therefore there is little match between borderlines and human characteristics in terms of ethnic, linguistic and religious. This situation is the roots of many persistent and durable tensions in the region.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Boundary
  • Superimposed boundaries
  • Human feature of boundaries
  • the Middle East
  • North Africa