تأثیر تحریمهای بین‌المللی بر عوامل قدرت ملی؛ با تأکید بر تحریمهای شورای امنیت سازمان ملل بر علیه ج.ا.ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

- استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

تحریمهای شورای امنیت برعلیه ایران و به‌دلیل فعالیتهای هسته‌ای از سال 2006 آغاز شد و تا سال 2010 نیز 6  قطعنامه در این خصوص صادر شد که در طی زمان بر شدت اقدامات آنها افزوده شد. با توجه به مفاد قطعنامه‌ها، تحریمهای اعمال شده از سوی شورای امنیت سازمان ملل بر علیه ایران از نوع تسلیحاتی، مالی و مسافرت افراد درگیر در بخش انرژی هستهای و صنایع موشکی است. اگرچه درجه این تحریمها با تحریمهای جامع فاصله زیادی دارد، ولی با این حال آثار آنها در جامعه قابل لمس است و در پی آن آثار زیانباری حتی بر بخشهای تحریم نشده نظیر بخش سلامت و اغلب عوامل قدرت ملی نظیر اقتصاد، محیط زیست، کارایی نظام سیاسی، علم و تکنولوژی، اجتماع و فرهنگ، امور نظامی و حتی امور فرامرزی تحمیل شده است. مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی در پی بررسی تحریم‌های بین‌المللی بر علیه ج.ا.ا  و اثرات آنها بر قدرت  ملی در طی ده سال گذشته است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که اگرچه تحریمها در مواردی که به‌صورت هدفمند اعمال شده‌اند، به‌صورت مستقیم ریشهها و مبانی آن قدرت ملی را هدف قرار دادند، ولی به‌صورت غیرمستقیم نیز بخشهای دیگر کشور را مورد هدف قرار داده اند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Sanctions on the Elements of National Power, with emphasis on the United Nations Security Council Sanctions against the Islamic Republic of Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Hossain Mokhtari Hashi
- Assistant P rofessor of Political Geography, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Sanctions are set of measures that can be used to punish a party to persuade it to stop or perform the desired action. The aim of the sanctions is very different. In the past, mainly sanctions were applied in the form of unilateral and in some cases as multilateral, but after World War I and the establishment of the League of Nations, sanctions are considered for global peace and security, and also was changed in addition the breadth of participants, including members of the League of Nations and even it was as successful in some cases.
After World War II and the establishment of United Nations, the implementation of sanctions were considered by approval of the UN Security Council and all Member States are also required to implement and comply with its provisions, which increases the efficiency and the success of UN sanctions.
UN sanctions until the late twentieth century mostly were in the form of non-targeted, like a public punishment, was applied to all people and sectors of the country that  suffer innocent people which made its performance and success poor. To solve this problem, the strategy of targeted sanctions is followed. The aim of this kind of sanction is that, as much as possible target only aimed sections and in some cases the leaders and those who are responsible for specific measures in the country. Security Council sanctions against Iran, because of its nuclear activities are started in 2006 and by 2010, six resolutions in this regard was issued and over the time caused some problems in different sectors and the power and national survival factors.
This paper aims to study the impact of sanctions on the basis of national power theoretically and also the effects of UN Security Council sanctions against Iran over its elements of national power.
 
Methodology
The descriptive analytical method is used in this study and data collection was through documents and internet resources. Data analysis is qualitative and content analysis was performed.
 
Conclusion
According to the UN resolutions concerning Iran's nuclear activities, sanctions imposed by the UN Security Council against Iran are in category of arms, financial and travel ban of individuals involved in nuclear and missile industries. Although these sanctions are far from comprehensive sanctions, but their impacts to the community are palpable and they have negative effects even on unsanctioned sectors such as health care and most elements of national power, such as economy, the environment, the efficiency of the political system, science and technology, society and culture, military affairs, and even cross-border affairs.
This research has examined the impact of sanctions on Iran's national power, over the past decade. The results show that although in cases that sanctions have been applied as targeted, they directly targeting the roots and foundations of national power, but indirectly also hit other unsanctioned parts of the country.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Sanction
  • Resolution
  • UN Security Council
  • National Power
  • Iran