سیاست‌گذاری امنیت منطقه‌ای ناتو در مقابله با نشانه‌های آشوب‌ساز

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

ـ استاد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

پایان ساختار دوقطبی را باید به‌عنوان مقدمه‌ای برای ظهور سازوکارهای آشوب‌زا در سیاست بین‌الملل دانست. بازیگران منطقه‌ای و قدرت‌های بزرگ در شرایط جهان آشوب‌زده، نیازمند سیاست‌گذاری امنیتی و راهبردی برای کنترل و محدودسازی نتایج آشوب سیاسی می‌باشند. سیاست‌گذاری امنیت منطقه‌ای در شرایط آشوب می‌تواند از طریق سازوکارهای یک‌جانبه، نهادی و هویتی انجام پذیرد. در این مقاله با استفاده از روش «تحلیل داده‌ها» و «تحلیل محتوا» و با استفاده از چارچوب نظری «نهادگرایی امنیتی» تلاش می‌شود تا سه سطح تحلیل امنیت‌سازی منطقه‌ای در فرآیند سیاست‌گذاری امنیتی بررسی و ارزیابی شود. یافته ها نشان می دهد که امنیت، ماهیت دگرگون‌شونده داشته و تحت‌تأثیر سازوکارهای محیط پیرامونی تغییر می‌یابد. در چنین شرایطی، نهادهای امنیتی نیز وظیفه دارند تا از سازوکارهای لازم برای چندجانبه‌گرایی نهادی و در راستای مقابله با تهدیدهای نوظهور استفاده نمایند. تهدیدهای نوظهور در نگرش بازیگران جهان غرب در قالب «نظریه آشوب» تبیین گردیده است. این نظریه می‌تواند جایگزینی برای رهیافت‌های رئالیستی و نئورئالیستی تلقی شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

NATO’s Regional Security Policymaking to Confront with Chaos-Generating Indications

نویسنده [English]

  • Abass Mossalanejad
- Full Professor of Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Chaos Theory in the political and strategic literature is returned to the years after 1980s. “Turbulence in World Politics” theory was first introduced by James Rosenau. Later, others, such as Brzezinski and Lucas attempted to adapt such a strategy to new realities of international policy. End of bipolar structure can be considered as an introduction to the emergence of chaos-generating mechanisms in international policy. In the chaotic world, regional actors and the great powers need security and strategic policymaking to control and restrict the effects of political chaos. Regional security policymaking can be realized under chaotic conditions through unilateral, institutional, and identity- based mechanisms. This article attempts to discuss and evaluate three levels of regional security. In such process, formation of some traces of strategic cooperation among the great powers and regional actors is normal. NATO has accomplished part of the regional security policymaking during the first two decades of the 21st century. In 1999 and on the fiftieth anniversary of NATO, European and American security theorists put the first step toward regional security policymaking in terms of concepts such as “defense of common values”, “collective security”, and “confront with new threats”. In such a process, Anders Fogh Rasmussen was commissioned by NATO theorist in 2012 Chicago Summit to organize the issue related to “Smart Defense” to confront with the post-cold war security threats.
 
Methodology
This article is tried to answer the main question and subordinate questions using theoretical frame of “security institutionalism” by data analysis and content analysis methods. The article’s main question emphasizes this case that “what were the features of regional security policy of NATO in the years after cold war and how it could influence security of regional countries such as Iran?” according to the article’s main question, subordinate questions about regional security policy of NATO are as follows:
What are the features of regional security policy of NATO after cold war?
What are the symbols of international security institution’s acts after cold war?
What are the effects of NATO’s extension and in what process have arrived to Iran’s strategic area?
According to which concepts and symbols NATO’s action pattern have been formed in Iran’s security region?
Article’s assumption has been adjusted based on dependent and independent variables. In this article “regional extension is considered as a dependent variable while we should consider “regional security policy of NATO” as an independent variable. Based on such variables, we can discuss this assumption that “regional security policy of NATO” is a function of Collective security, encountering new threats, advocating confederates and common leadership in the years after the Cold War.     
 
Discussion and Findings
We can observe regional security symbols in the form of confronting strategic, operative and tactics threats’ mechanism by north Atlantic contract. Now, there is a wide range of NATO’s military in Afghanistan, also other part of NATO’s member countries play a role in regional crises such as Middle East and North Africa. NATO’s contract expanded its strategic activities according to 26 countries participation to confront with terrorism in Afghanistan and WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction) in Iraq after 11 September event in 2001. Regional security process shows that a new level a NATO’s combat mission has been started related to what is called “asymmetric threats” to confront with chaos maker’s actors.
 
Conclusion
Extension changes have been occurred in concepts, combat mission, structure and strategy of NATO during the two periods: after the cold war and 11 September event. Its sample was approved in section 31 of new concepts’ document of NATO’s strategy due to fiftieth anniversary of NATO’s establishment. New definitions of concepts such as “common values ‘defense”, “Collective Security” and “new Threats” was presented and new trans- Atlantic combat mission was augmented. These missions can create NATO’s fundamental development-oriented basis to the security borders beyond the recognized borders of NATO. New Threats are cases such as terrorism, extreme nationalism, drug, political instability, ethnic conflicts, and spread of weapons of mass destruction, weaponry traffic and uncontrolled migration which increase NATO’s member countries assurance to secure in confront with threats.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chaos
  • Regional crisis
  • Common Values
  • Smart Defense
  • NATO