بررسی موانع توسعه صنعت گردشگری بین‌المللی در ایران با تأکید بر گردشگری ورودی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور

2 - دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیای طبیعی، دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

گردشگری یکی از نیازهای انسان مدرن است و در میان بخشهای مختلف اقتصادی، بیشترین رشد و درآمدزایی داشته است. رونق یا کسادی گردشگری در کشورها به عوامل مختلفی بستگی دارد. ایران به‌عنوان یکی از کشورهای دارای جاذبه‌های فراوان تاریخی ـ فرهنگی و طبیعی دارای جایگاه مناسبی از نظر جذب گردشگر بین‌المللی نیست. از این‌رو، این تحقیق به‌دنبال شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر عدم توسعه صنعت گردشگری در ایران است. روش انجام تحقیق به‌شیوه توصیفی کمی و ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات، پرسشنامه و جامعه آماری 75 نفر متشکل از صاحبنظران، متخصصان و برخی مدیران دولتی بوده است. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها به‌وسیله نرم‌افزار SPSS انجام شده است و از آزمونهای تحلیل واریانس یک‌طرفه و T تک‌نمونه‌ای برای سنجش تأثیر معناداری عوامل بر صنعت گردشگری ایران و از آزمون فریدمن برای رتبه‌بندی عوامل استفاده شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که عوامل سیاسی داخلی و خارجی، نهادی و سازمانی، زیربنایی و اقتصادی تأثیر معناداری بر عدم توسعه گردشگری در ایران دارند و عوامل فرهنگی و دینی، امنیتی و جاذبه‌های گردشگری تأثیر معناداری به‌عنوان موانع توسعه صنعت گردشگری در ایران ندارند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Obstacles of the International Tourism Development in Iran (With Emphasis on Inbound Tourism)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Veicy 1
  • Khadijeh Mehmandoost 2
1 - Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Payame Noor University, Iran
2 - M.A of Physical Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Tourism is one of important needs of human. This industry has witnessed the most growth and income in the world. Stagnancy or development of tourism in the countries depends on different factors. Iran has a lot of tourism attractions such as cultural, historical, religious, coastal, maritime, natural attractions and climate potentialities. Iran inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO more of its heritages. Therefore, Iran is one of the countries which have some attractions in the world, especially in Middle East. But, Iran does not have suitable situation to attract international tourists in the region and world. Investigation the whys of this situation is the research goal? What obstacles have affected the development of the tourism industry in Iran? This research tries to answer this problem.
After considering research literature and background and designing theoretical framework, 8 factors obtained that consist of internal political factor, external political factor, security factor, cultural and religious factor, economic factor, institutional and organizational factor, infrastructural factor and finally touristic attractions factor. 
 
Methodology
This research tries to investigate effective obstacles to the development of tourism industry in Iran. The research method adopted here is descriptive-analytic and the data gather procedure is based on library and filed finding. The questionnaire is based on Likert scale and the questions number was 34. Questionnaire reliability is measured by Cronbach‘s coefficient alpha and it was 0.87. The Statistical sample is included academic experts, researchers, managers and executive experts of tourism organizations in Iran. 75 people were selected by simple random sampling method and the questionnaires were distributed among them. 67 people answered them. The data analyzed using SPSS by “one-way ANOVA analyze” and “one-sample T test” to measure the significance of factors and also Friedman test was used to rank factors.
 
Result and Discussion
The results of one-way ANOVA analyze showed that there are significant difference among factors. The results of T test are showed in table 1.
 
Table 1: The results of T test





Factors


t


Df


Sig. (2-tailed)


Test Value




Interior political


13.525


67


0.000


21




Exterior political


-3.976


67


0.000


12




Security


-0.896


67


0.374


3




Cultural and religious


-0.493


67


0.624


21




Institutional


16.680


67


0.000


18




Infrastructural


9.878


67


0.000


12




Touristic attractions


-1.798


67


0.078


3




Economic


9.386


67


0.000


12





 
After determining the effective factors on Iran’s tourism industry, factors were ranked by Friedman test. The results of Friedman test are showed in table 2.
 
Table 2: The results of Friedman test





Ranks


Factors


Mean rank


Chi-square test




1


Interior political


6.65


N


67




2


Institutional


5.70


Chi-square


155.107




3


Exterior political


5.57


df


7




4


Infrastructural


5.50


Asymp.Sig.


0.000




5


Economic


4.48


 


 




6


Cultural and religious


2.93


 


 




7


Security


2.66


 


 






8


Touristic attractions


2.51


 


 





 
Conclusion
The results showed that internal political factor, external political factor, economic factor, institutional and organizational factor and infrastructural factor have significant effect on the development of the tourism industry in Iran. But, security factor, cultural and religious factor and tourism attractions factor do not have significant effect on tourism industry as well as on the obstacles to the development of tourism. The output of Friedman test showed that internal political factor is the most effective factor with mean 6.65 on tourism industry as well as on the obstacles to the development of tourism and then institutional and organizational factor, external political factor, infrastructural factor and economic factor are located, respectively.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • tourism
  • International Tourists
  • Obstacles of Tourism Development
  • Iran