بررسی و شناسایی متغیرهای مؤثر بر بی ثباتی نظام سیاسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 - دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

مهم ترین دغدغه هر حکومت و نظام سیاسی دست یابی به ثبات و امنیت پایدار است. ثبات سیاسی حکومت عبارت است از اینکه ماهیت نظام سیاسی علی‎رغم وجود برخی نوسان‎ها و گذر از بحران‎های مختلف، ثابت و پایدار باقی بماند.از طرفی، هر نظام سیاسی پویا در تعامل با محیط داخلی و خارجی خود، به ناچار درگیر تنش‌ها و بحران هایی می شود که اگر نتواند آنها را مدیریت نماید نظام سیاسی دچار بی ثباتی شده و امنیت آن به‌شدت در معرض تهدید قرار می گیرد. بررسی و شناخت متغیرهای مؤثر بر بی ثباتی نظام سیاسی از جمله روش‌های مهمی است که می توان تا حد زیادی در کنترل و مدیریت آنها نقش آفرینی کرد. در این پژوهش، مهمترین متغیرهای مؤثر بر بی ثباتی نظام سیاسی، در قالب سه دسته متغیرهای سیاسی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز تحقیق به دو شیوه کتابخانه ای و میدانی(پرسشنامه)گردآوری شده است و 146 متغیر با توجه به‌نظر نخبگان و صاحب‌نظران معرفی و مورد آزمون قرار گرفت، سپس متغیرها وزن دهی و رتبه بندی شده اند و مهمترین متغیرها در هر عامل شناسایی شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان می‌دهد در عامل سیاسی، وقوع انقلاب، کودتا، جنگ داخلی، کاهش مشروعیت رژیم؛ در عامل اجتماعی– فرهنگی، بروز آشوب‌های شهری، نابرابری اجتماعی، فساد اداری– مدیریتی، کمبود آزادی‌های مدنی و سرانجام در عامل اقتصادی؛ نرخ بالای بیکاری، فساد مالی در نظام سیاسی-اداری، افزایش فقر و محرومیت و تبعیض اقتصادی مهمترین و تأثیرگذارترین متغیرها بوده اند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation and Recognition of Variables Affecting Political System’s Instability

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hadi Zarghani 1
  • Hadi Azami 1
  • Rahele Ahmadi 2
1 - Associate Professor of Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 - M.A of Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Undoubtedly, one of the key and most fundamental issues in political atmosphere of the world is the political systems’ instability and stability. Political stability is essential for a political system to achieve its goals. This is why achieving sustainable stability and security is the most important concern of each government and political system. Political stability means that nature of political system remains stable in spite of some fluctuations and transitions. Meanwhile, every dynamic political system having interaction with its internal and external environment is necessarily involved in some tensions and crises and if it cannot settle them, the political system would become instable and will be treated by various threats. Hence, governments are usually seeking to design and perform long- term policies which help their sustainability. Investigation and recognition of variables affecting political system’s instability are among important methods which can contribute to control and handle them.
 
Methodology
The research is basic in terms of its goal and is descriptive- analytic in terms of nature and method. Data gathering procedure is based on library and field finding. The field study is a questionnaire type, and statistical sample will include experts. Data analysis will be done using qualitative and quantitative analysis methods, and conclusion will be done using the two methods.
 
Discussion
A review on literatures regarding political system instability reveals that evaluation of the concept is difficult. In fact, evaluation of political instability like assessment of national power is also entangled with such fundamental challenges like: power is a multidimensional concept; variables are multiple and divers; variables have different values; there are some qualitative variables etc. Political instability stems from different origins which as a whole application they make the political system instable. Primary factors causing instability are resulted from different so-called political, economic, social and cultural and such other factors which exist in quantitative and qualitative forms. In other words, each of these variables could hold qualitative or quantitative aspects. Since geo-politicians, political scientists, scholars in international relations and politicians are interested in political instability they have tried to provide a list of those factors affecting political instability.
 
Conclusion
In the research we made effort to recognize the most important variables affecting political system’s instability using investigation scholars’ theories, and then to evaluate the degree of importance of each of these variables. Accordingly, the most important and effective variables respectively were such factors like: political factors including revolutions, coup d'etat, civil wars, declining the regimes’ legitimacy, repression of people by governing regimes, ethnic-racial riots, and political despotism and dictatorship; socio-cultural factors including urban chaos, social inequity, administrative corruption, lack of civil liberties and extreme ethnic-religious conflicts; and finally economic factor including high rate of unemployment, financial corruption in administrative – political system (bribery, embezzlement, money laundering, etc.), increase in poverty and deprivation and high rate of inflation were the most significant and effective variables.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Political stability
  • Political instability
  • political system