عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the outstanding features of Iran is the coexistence of various lingual and religious groups living beside each other in throughout the history. Each of these groups in their own share has contributed to the continuation of Iranian civilization, so that to protect the political life of this land in different methods. However, there have been stages in which some levels of tensions have dominated over their relations which have been one of the factors for the competition among the elites to achieve social and political opportunities. Elections as socio-political phenomenon have been a good place for elites to use the ethnic differences to absorb the votes of the ethnic groups. Some of the presidential candidates in order to achieve their goals and to establish a vote base for themselves put their steps beyond the historical and legal realities or cause ethnic tensions and conflicts.
The research is basic in terms of its goal and is descriptive- analytic in terms of nature and method. Data gathering procedure is based on library findings. The maps and diagrams used in this research have been prepared using GIS and EXCEL software.
The research findings based on the results of three recent terms of presidential election in Iran show that there has been an instrumental view towards lingual and religious diversities in the country. This phenomenon which is done to gain maximum votes by electoral candidates, has not been able to put a significant effect on vote basket. But the definite damages of these types of behavior which are deliberately performed would damage the national unity and solidarity.
Reviewing the three last periods on putting forth ethnic issues and instrumental view towards lingual and religious diversities, the following cases can be pointed out:
1. Gaining votes in the presidential election in the first step is related to the individuals’ attachment to the dominant discourses and trends in the country.
2. After attachment to political trends, the local and regional attachment has the highest rate of votes for the individuals.
3. The ethnic-based slogans have not been effective in individuals’ success in any period.