تحلیل جایگاه دیپلماسی عمومی در گردشگری ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

- عضو هیأت علمی پژوهشکده گردشگری

چکیده

دیپلماسی عمومی بهره ­گیری دولت از فرصت­ها برای پیشبرد اهداف دیپلماتیک است و گردشگری(با بیش از 4/1 میلیارد گردشگر در سال 2014) مؤثرترین پدیده ­ای است که می­تواند به عنوان یک فرصت نقش بسیار مهمی در توسعه دیپلماسی عمومی ایفا نماید. صنعت گردشگری در همه ابعاد به سیاست­های دولت وابسته است و در توسعه سیاسی، ایجاد و گسترش صلح و نیز رشد و توسعه اقتصادی نقش بسیار مهمی بر عهده دارد. در ایران نیز گردشگری با وجود توانایی­ های بالقوه فراوان؛ علی‌رغم اینکه بنا به‌دلایل مختلف توفیق چندانی در زمینه بهره­برداری از این مزیت را نداشته است؛ می­تواند مورد توجه دستگاه دیپلماسی کشور قرار گیرد. پژوهش حاضر که با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی انجام پذیرفته، بر این سوال تأکید دارد که نقش و جایگاه دیپلماسی عمومی در توسعه گردشگری در ایران چگونه است؟ برای رونق صنعت گردشگری و به​تبع آن توسعه دیپلماسی عمومی دو دسته اقدامات در سطوح داخلی و خارجی پیشنهاد گردیده که مهمترین آنها توجه ویژه به دیپلماسی گردشگری به‌عنوان دیپلماسی مثبت و انسانگرا است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Public Diplomacy in Iranian Tourism Industry

نویسنده [English]

  • Naser Rezaei
- Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Tourism Research Instituation, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Public diplomacy is in fact a government attempts  to take the chance to realize its diplomatic goals, doing so, tourism –with 1.4 billion tourists estimated for 2014-is the most effective phenomenon  can make the way for developing of public diplomacy. Tourism Industry is fully dependant on the government policies and is of great influence on in political and economic development as well as making peace. Enjoy great potential, Iran tourism can be of concern to the public diplomacy of the country-although it has not been successful as expected-.This analytic-descriptive survey has been conducted with library and documentary method. The main focus of this survey is on reviewing the role of Tourism in developing public policy of the country. Developing tourism Industry and consequently public diplomacy two groups of measure are offered at both domestic and international level, amongst the all, special concern for tourism diplomacy as appositive and humane one is in center of attention.
 
Methodology
This is a fundamental and analytic-descriptive research and making an enquiry from the experts and referring to the documents it has been analyzing the current status and offers the ideal one. Toward this end, a survey on the principles and analyzing them with the status and impact of tourism on public diplomacy approach has been conducted.
 
 Discussion
Developing tourism industry like any other industries is closely dependant on the government policies; therefore, making tourism diplomacy can greatly impact on its development and flourishing. Providing for proper infrastructure and increasing security and ideal situation in different aspects, tourism can directly affect on economy, policy, culture and society. Considering the relationship between tourism and political issues and tourism role in political development as well as political decision making process effect on development or hindering tourism development, role of the government, private section, public sections and organizations and their interconnections with tourism is of great influence on tourism diplomacy.
The most important forms of diplomacy are: Traditional Diplomacy, Nongovernmental Organizations Diplomacy, Economic Diplomacy, Corporate Diplomacy, Business Diplomacy, Commercial Diplomacy, Cyber Diplomacy and Public Diplomacy.
Realizing diplomatic objectives, along with the present and threaten to punishment, satisfaction is its most important mean and achievement. Some experts introduced two different patterns for Public Diplomacy: 1. State based hierarchical pattern: it has emphasized on Public Diplomacy within the traditional framework of intergovernmental relations. 2. Network Model Diplomacy in which the people actively take part in giving and receiving messages. Furthermore, Grunting and Hunt also have offered a four pattern classification with two main variables of the direction and goal of communication: The press/Advertising, public Information, Bilateral asymmetric and Bilateral symmetric.
On the other hand, tourism that has been defined in terms the activities of a traveler to accommodate in lodging out of his own place of living at least for 24 hours and upmost for less than a full year for taking a vacation or entertainment and so on not to remunerate or to get a job in destination. These activities are worthwhile in different dimensions such as hidden export, economic flourishing,, reasonable wage ,salary and job perks, flexibility and flourishing, increasing of income and making security.
In all countries specially developed countries, tourism is considered an efficient mean in adoption of public policies. Three main roles of tourism are as follows: Regulatory role-codification of the framework for development and management of tourism, preservation of nature and culture as well as private section participation, normative role that is connected to expanding tourism related knowledge and skills and cognitive role that includes changing the community point of view toward tourism. Normally the government intervention in tourism is carried out at three different levels: international, national and local.
Tourism development makes the way to realize a series of political objectives including: relieve the tension, misunderstanding in relations among nations, making secured and safe ambience for tourists, making peace and a unified language for discussion (diplomacy).
Iran due to its great economic, cultural, military, geographical and in just one word geopolitical potentials is considered as one the region and world important countries. Besides all these the great potent in tourism has not been so successful in development of tourism and its side benefits.
In Humane geopolitics, philosophy of government is people and citizens. The citizens are not the philosophy of the government. From this point of view, it is possible to consider tourism Diplomacy as humane geopolitics manifest as in this kind of Diplomacy tourist transfer the messages among nations to make the way for development, making job opportunities, making money and peace. Furthermore, tourism can lead different parts of the world toward integrity, making use of positive Diplomacy of convergent forces. Tourism can take the most out of the world common sense and wisdom to realize its goals benefiting cooperation, collaboration, stability and peace of the region.
The subject that is of great importance in Tourism Diplomacy, is to pave the way for fund raising as the first step in tourism development, advertising and marketing based on scientific principles and well-planned programs, considering positive role of tourism in peace making, creating job opportunities, increasing income and poverty alleviation and dealing with unemployment problems in the society. it also  emphasizes on the tourism role in signing bilateral and multilateral contracts, protocols and concords.
 
Result and Conclusion
Iran enjoys vast land, climatic variety and different ecosystems, tribal variation, rich culture and a great number of rural and urban attractions, having all these together, Iran is like a vast continent. Although our country enjoys great potentials, it is not quite familiar even to our own compatriots. The industry still has problems to make profit and penetrate into international market and play a key role in country economy, considering the fact that the tourism round the world is an activity with great economic importance with a lot of short and long term plans. Booming tourism industry in Iran requires two groups of measures to be carried out at domestic and outbound level. Domestic planning is the basis for outbound tourism and guarantees its success. Toward this end, tourism as an industry should be given great value and importance and change to the underlying basis for diplomacy, and consider Diplomacy as an effective strategy for tourism. Tourism can create job opportunities, alleviate the poverty, and raise the fund and finally increasing of foreign and domestic capitals. Realizing this requires revision of codification system, offering standard amenities and facilities extensive promotion as well as changing of governors’ outlook to tourism as a golden opportunity not a threat.
Finally Tourism Diplomacy is appositive and stimulus of transferring messages among nations and is a manifest of humane geopolitics. It can be a great help to the country diplomacy system and can offer appositive and developed picture of Iran to the world as well it can make positive interactions among governments. Tourism also impacts greatly on absorbing tourism and raise funding in different sections of economy.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Public Diplomacy
  • tourism diplomacy
  • Iran