جغرافیای بهداشتی در راهبرد امنیت موسع آمریکا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - استاد علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

2 - کارشناس ارشد مطالعات آمریکا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

امنیت در دوران بعد از جنگ سرد با شاخص های متنوع تری همراه گردیده است. نظریه‌پردازانی همانند باری بوزان براین اعتقادند که امنیت موسّع محور اصلی تمامی قالب های تحلیل امنیتی در دوران جدید نظام بین-الملل می باشد. سیاست های بهداشتی و مداخلات بشردوستانه را باید به‌عنوان دو مؤلفه تشکیل دهندة امنیت موسّع در سیاست راهبردی ایالات متحده دانست. در این مقاله تلاش می شود تا جغرافیای بهداشتی در سیاست امنیتی آمریکا مورد ارزیابی قرار گیرد. لازم به توضیح است که چنین رهیافتی در قالب امنیت موسّع تبیین می گردد. 
سیاست امنیتی آمریکا در دوران بعد از جنگ سرد در حوزه موضوعات مکتب انتقادی از جمله سیاست های بهداشتی، محیط زیست و موضوعات مربوط به حقوق بشر مورد پیگیری قرار می گیرد. هریک از مؤلفه های یاد شده بخشی از ضرورت های راهبردی آمریکا را تشکیل می دهد. امنیتی شدن موضوعات جامعه‌محور، اقتصاد‌محور و انسان‌محور در سیاست خارجی آمریکا را می توان به‌عنوان واقعیت جدید رویکرد امنیتی آمریکا دانست. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Health Geography in the U.S Security Strategy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Motaghi 1
  • Zeynab Rafaati Alashti 2
1 - Full Professor of Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
2 - M.A of American Studies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Security has various indices in the post-cold war era. Theoreticians like Barry Buzan believe that "extended security" is the main concept in security analysis in the new international system. Two elements of "extended security" of the U.S strategic policy are Health policy and Human intervention. This article investigates "health geography" in the U.S security policy. It is necessary to explain that this approach is expounded in the framework of "extended security". Most experts believe that all countries should worry about their emerging security issues that are more complex and various. The U.S security policy in the post-cold war era has been followed in the framework of critical theory that issues like health policy, environment and human rights are in this area. Securitization of economic-based, society-based and human-based issues is the new reality of the U.S foreign policy. Globalization causes international security concept to be extended. This matter causes health issues to be considered as a security problem such as environmental and immigration issues. By increase in military expenditure and hardware intervention in national security context, the U.S efforts to increase its influence in peripheral countries by social security issues include health problem. The U.S health policy is a part of soft power to expand its regional and international intervention. Some people believe that Africa is a center for the U.S to do their health and medical tests. Indeed, these arguments appeared after Obama confession in 2009.
Methodology
The research methodology adopted is “content analysis”. Information related to the U.S health policy in basis of various geography areas and its effects on the U.S security strategy is processed.
Results and discussion
AIDS disease has an important role in the U.S security and foreign policy because it paves the way for intervention in Africa with less sensitivity. Now, several non -government organizations work on health issues. In the most the U.S national security reports, it has been paid attention to low- intensity threats. For example, George Tenet, Director of the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, pointed out the AIDS effects and its security facets on the U.S political future in 2003. Tenet emphasized that expansion of AIDS causes increase in mental insecurity in society. Besides, expansion of AIDS weakens the economic growth of Africa, and intensifies social tensions. The U.S. Theoreticians emphasize that expanding AIDS in Africa make an appropriate opportunity to terrorist groups to use that county as a military base. Permeability of borders, political instability and lack of powerful government are the main reasons that international terrorism threaten the U.S. West Countries like the U.S fears from this events, fears that mounted after 9/11 2001.
Conclusion
The U.S security policy in post-cold war has been affected by "Critical School". The critical school emphasizes on new security issues in international relations. They believe that social issues are a part of requirements of national and international security, and human- based issues like AIDS and environmental issues affect national security indirectly. They emphasize that the U.S can reach security goals by means of social issues. This new indices and aims have formed the U.S security approaches related to social, cultural, environmental, and ethnic and identity issues. These changes affected the U.S preferences and economic expenditures in Bush and Obama era.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Health Geography
  • Critical School
  • Epidemic Disease
  • Humanitarian Aids
  • Demographic changes
  • Social security
  • the U.S
  • Africa