تبیین ژئوپلیتیکی روابط جمهوری اسلامی ایران و جمهوری قزاقستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - استاد روابط بین‌الملل، دانشگاه تهران

2 - کارشناس ارشد مطالعات منطقه ای دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

فروپاشی شوروی و شکل‌گیری جمهوری‌های جدید، ارزش و اهمیت جایگاه سرزمینی ایران را در منطقه و جهان، بیش از پیش ارتقا بخشیده است. جمهوری قزاقستان محصور در خشکی است و برای تأمین تقاضاهای متنوع و نیز عرضه نفت و گاز خود به بازارهای جهانی، به مسیرهای ارتباطی کوتاه و مطمئن منتهی به آبهای آزاد نیازمند است. موقعیت سرزمینی ایران در قلب منطقه خاورمیانه، واقعیت ارزشمند اما بالقوه‌ای است که می‌تواند ظرفیت‌های متنوع و گسترده جدیدی برای تجارت، صنعت، خدمات، افزایش درآمد ملی و در نتیجه انباشت سرمایه‌ها و توسعه و حتی امنیت برای کشور ایجاد کند. اما زمینه‌ها و عواملی چون خلاء قدرت ایجاد شده پس از فروپاشی شوروی، موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی منطقه، استقرار در نزدیکی تقاطع آسیا و اروپا، دارا بودن دومین منابع بزرگ انرژی دنیا، بازار مصرف انبوه و رو به رشد و تمایل کشورهای آسیای مرکزی برای حضور قدرت‌های فرامنطقه‌ای با هدف کاهش وابستگی به روسیه و جذب سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی و توسعه اقتصادی، باعث حضور قدرت‌های منطقه‌ای و فرامنطقه‌ای در آسیای مرکزی گردیده و موانعی جدی برای حضور مؤثرتر ایران به‌وجود آورده است. سؤال اصلی مقاله این است که ایران با توجه به موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی خود، چگونه از این فرصت در جهت توسعه روابط با جمهوری قزاقستان بهره برده است؟ در این مقاله سعی شده است با توجه به واقعیت‌های ژئوپلیتیکی منطقه، در واقع مهمترین عوامل تأثیرگذار در موقعیت و منزلت ژئوپلیتیکی ایران در جهت گسترش روابط با جمهوری قزاقستان مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گیرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explanation of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Geopolitical Relationship with Kazakhstan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elaheh Koolaee 1
  • Amir Ebrahimi 2
1 - Full Professor of International Relations, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
2 - M.A of Regional Studies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Republic of Kazakhstan with continental location and lack of accessibility to the open seas, unique capability of the Islamic Republic of Iran to control energy production regions, energy transmission lines and energy consumption markets provide new opportunities to foreign investment in Iran. Iran by placing in the geographical center of region should be considered as an international center for investment, transfer of goods and in particular energy, but over the years after the collapse of Soviet Union, Central Asia has been the bed to regional competitions and political and economic presence of trans-regional powers and their influence in these republics. Therefore, one of the most important factors limiting the mobility space for comprehensive development of relation with Iran is the presence of these countries. In addition, there are some internal problems and obstacles in these countries and the Islamic Republic of Iran in the gap between initial expectations and they have an important role in the status quo. In this paper the role of two the countries, the United States and Russia is studied as factors affecting the development of Iran’s relations with the Republic of Kazakhstan as an independent variable in order to study and analyze the relations between Iran and Kazakhstan as the dependent variable.
 
Methodology
This paper tries to evaluate the hypothesis through descriptive approach and is mostly based on analysis. Data gathering procedure is based on various methods like library method. Internet, books and experts papers of Central Eurasia library (University of Tehran) were used in the data-gathering step. After data classifying by means of descriptive-analytical approach data were analyzed.
 
Results and discussion
Iran for the landlocked Central Asia is a good transportation route, which can bring Kazakhstan’s oil and gas production in the best shape to open seas. Despite the efforts of the US government to ignore this trait and the politics of oil and gas transmission, Iran is considered as the safest, the most economic and short path for energy supplies transferring to the open seas. American foreign policy toward the Caspian region will ignore the important increasing interdependencies between Iran and its northern neighbors. Therefore, one of the most important factors limiting maneuvering space for the Islamic Republic of Iran which prevents comprehensive development with these countries is the U.S. In recent years, Russia also has been able to use energy to play the role of an important political actor. Russia is not willing to accept the limitation on its role in this field and entrance of other rivals in this arena. Therefore, Russia carefully considers the actions of other countries, especially Iran.
 
Conclusion
Although the end of the Cold War would provide for Iran appropriate geopolitical opportunities to create an independent relationship with its northern neighbors, but  arrival of the US in this region following the power vacuum created and took advantage of the geography and geographical elements against our country has limited Iran’s geopolitical opportunities after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although Iran does not have hostile relations with the Republic of Kazakhstan, but it failed to find an important place in the country’s economic relations in such a way that the energy transmission lines are in more or less control of Russia. In fact, Iran’s relation with the Republic of Kazakhstan is only preventing damage of existing relationships, but this matter cannot take away the shadow of the US hostility and Russia’s concerns.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitics
  • Energy
  • Central Asia
  • Caspian Sea
  • Iran
  • Kazakhstan