عنوان مقاله [English]
Organizing states affaires is done by institutions that have power and authority in geographical space. Power and authority in geographical space is formed by force or transferring nation’s power to state. Currently, transferring nation’s power to state is the popular phenomena in political structure of most countries.
There are three state patterns: unitary, federal and regional. There are some differences between state’s system and power distribution in space. Unitary state pattern is divided into two parts: centralized unitary pattern that has centralized political and administrative system and decentralized unitary pattern that is centralized from political and legislative prospect and it is decentralized from administrative prospect.
Analysis of centralized unitary systems in some countries that have diverse geographical environment and human groups show that these systems face the following challenges: lack of geographical justice, lack of structural and functional integrity of space and homogeneity, transient and government-based participation, bureaucracy, regional and local challenges, imperceptible and sustainable development, centralized communication networks, enlarging capital of state and regional cities affected by concentration of capital and money, concentration of governmental organizations. This research shows that these challenges are the result of four variants: legislation, centralized political management, low and transient participant and political division of space as a context of functions of political and administrative institutions in these systems.
This research will present a theoretical framework in relation to expounding political management of space in these management patterns by investigating current challenges using descriptive methodology and library and documentary findings as data gathering procedures.
Descriptive field study methods and searching of library resources and documents; with the challenges of focusing on Unitary State, the theoretical framework explained in connection with the political management of space will offer.
Results and discussion
Unitary State Systems, the central state will strengthen and expand all-round. In this case the central government authority laws, rules, regulations and instructions are. So the same rules are applied uniformly in all parts of the country. There are no laws at the local level. Thus, this law does not fit with regional and local realities, and sometimes is in conflict with them. Therefore, neglecting local issues and geographical characteristics of the defects in the legislation is focused on the Unitary State Systems.
Unitary State Systems, the executive management is also focused on similar legislation. Management of local and regional levels of authority are not required for the decision. These are the countries with geographic diversity, performance management is the lack of such a tool that managers and flattering spreads. The local issues are ignored.
Political participation in the Unitary State Systems is very low. Or participation in these countries is not meaningful. The low participation in Unitary State Systems on sustainability issues in the country.
Administrative divisions in the Unitary State Systems are not focused on the needs of the geographical environment. Administrative divisions are smaller in these countries. Therefore, several centers with large organizations in a small geographical area is formed.
Countries that are geographically diverse environment, Unitary State Systems, particularly its focus on the type of performance is required in connection with the political management of space. Political management of space systems with singular focus on various issues in four areas of legislation, implementation, and partnerships with the country's divisions.