بررسی جایگاه ژئوپلیتیک انرژی در تأمین امنیت ملی ایران از منظر سه رویکرد امنیت‎ملی (گسترش‌محور، حفظ‌محور و توسعه‌محور)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 -استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 -دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه امام‌حسین

3 - دانشجوی دکترای علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان و عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه امام علی

چکیده

ژئوپلیتیک انرژی ایران در دو بعد ژئواکونومیک و ژئواستراتژیک، قابلیت بالقوه تأمین منافع و امنیت ملی کشور را دارا می‌باشد. در بعد ژئواکونومیک، ایران به‌عنوان دومین دارنده  نفت و گاز  جهان، ظرفیت تبدیل شدن به یکی از اصلی‌ترین شرکای انرژی مصرف‌کنندگان بزرگ نفت و گاز جهان را دارد. در بعد ژئواستراتژیک نیز ایران در موقعیتی قرار دارد که می‎تواند در امنیت انرژی منطقه‎ای و جهانی نقشی محوری ایفا نماید. موارد یاد شده باعث افزایش قدرت ژئوپلیتیک در راستای تأمین امنیت ملی کشور می‎گردد. در بین عناصر تعیین‌کننده سرنوشت کشور ایران، عوارض مثبت و منفی ژئوپلیتیک همواره حضوری پررنگ داشته‌اند. هم‌اکنون نیز یکی از مهم‎ترین متغیرهای ژئوپلیتیک مؤثر بر سرنوشت کشور، متغیر انرژی می‌باشد و یکی از راه‎هایی که ایران می‌تواند ضریب امنیت ملی خود را افزایش دهد، توجه به سیاست خارجی مبتنی بر امنیت انرژی است.استدلال اصلی این مقاله که با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی بررسی گردیده، این است که اگر در سطح تصمیم‎گیری کلان، از بین رویکردهای امنیت ملی کشور یعنی رویکردهای گسترش‌محور، حفظ‌محور و توسعه‌محور، اولویت به رویکرد امنیت ملی توسعه‎‌محور برای تعامل بیشتر با نظام جهانی داده شود در آن صورت است که می‎توان از طریق یک دیپلماسی انرژی منسجم و قوی، از ژئوپلیتیک انرژی در راستای توسعه قدرت‎ ملی و تأمین امنیت ‎ملی بهره جست.
 

 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation Geopolitical Position of Energy in Supplying Iran's National Security from the Prospect of Three National Security Approaches (Pivot expansion, Maintenance and Development)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Mehrabi 1
  • Seyed Yahya Safavi 2
  • Hossein Mahdian 3
1 - Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 -Associate Professor of Political Geography, Imam Hossein University,Tehran, Iran
3 - PhD Student in Political Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Positive and negative geopolitical phenomena have always had important role among factors that specify Iran’s fate. Currently, energy is one of the important variants in Iran’s fate, and one the ways that Iran can promote its security coefficient. Attention to the foreign policy is based on energy security.
Iran’s energy geopolitics in two facets of geo-economic and geostrategic has the potential of supplying national security and interests. Iran in the facet of geo-economic (with respect to this point that it has the second place in having oil and gas resourcesin the world) has the potentiality of being converted to one of the major energy partners of oil and gas consumers. Also, Iran in the facet of geostrategic has the position that can have a pivotal role in supplying region and world energy security. These mentioned facts decrease Iran’s geopolitical power in supplying national security.
The argumentation of this article which is analyzed through descriptive-analytic method is that if at the macro-level, the developmental national security approach is prioritized, then we can make use of a robust energy diplomacy for developing national power and national security.
 
Methodology
This paper describes an approach that is based on reason and analysis. In the center of scientific research and the use of Fish and Delphi survey to collect information on the subject is. The theoretical descriptions of the required background investigation and logical analysis of effective approaches to the geopolitics of energy security has been provided in both geostrategic and geo economy.
 
Results and discussion
One of the most important variables affecting the fate of nations geopolitical, energy geopolitics is shifting .Iran is the world's second-largest oil and gas, has the potential to play a more effective role in global energy security. Iran’s oil reserves (151.2 billion barrels in the year 2012), one of the world's five largest reserves of strength that the current production of more than 4/89 will last for years. Iran 1,168.6 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves, about 15.9 (January 2012) percent of the total gas reserves in the world that the process will produce over one hundred years old.
Development-oriented approach to national security, regional and global scale in order to meet the interests of national security and the geopolitics of energy is not And causes many locations geo poly economy and the geopolitics of energy in the country geo poly economy place, lost in regional and global dimensions .The reason is rather the result of this approach to national security, from the other side of this approach.
In the global and trans-national security-driven development approaches, insisting on the formation of these attitudes are Iran wants to interact with the system and it is the main power and the powers of policies contrary to their national interests to consider. Adopting this approach so far has been to form a major threat to national security Iran and more opportunities to play an effective role in global energy security is destroyed.
Iran's export earnings, energy (oil and gas) in particular is highly dependent on crude oil. The oil economy led Iran's foreign trade relations, based on the export of crude oil and the purchase of consumer goods formed. The reason is to cut oil exports, foreign trade relations with Iran and the challenges facing unsustainable growth and prosperity Iran would harm the foundation of breaking. During the economic boom of recent years has been mainly influenced by the increase in oil revenues.
Domestic economy and foreign trade dependence on oil Iran's foreign policy is tied to oil. This has led Iran's geopolitical vulnerability. And now some power with knowledge of the situation and harm to Iran, Have focused their policies on this issue. If you keep looking in critical condition after power-driven economy is vulnerable to national security, In contrast, the geopolitics of energy in Geostrategic then, is to provide national security.
We have a realistic view of the world we live in balance. Threats to country in search of ways to defend your self comes And threatening the government to balance does. If you have to understand the real threat is Iran Of their capacity to defend and repel national security threats facing their uses. The inhibitors are important tools to ward off potential threats, geo-strategic position of Iran.
Located in the center of strategic energy ellipse has caused Energy security and the need to shift the country's energy production and consumption, Influenced by Iran and its influence in the region. So the geopolitics of energy in Geostrategic can then adopt appropriate strategies for threats against national security, it can play a preventive role.
Development-oriented approach to national security approach to interactive global system, can effectively the geopolitics of energy in order to ensure national security. In view of the new security, while security threats are eliminated and the positive should be done by increasing the power, the strength in different dimensions (political, economic, military, etc.) expand the size of the claim that security threats.
Geo poly economy View, Iran's vast energy resources as the impact of geographic variables, the most important engines of economic momentum, which if utilized properly, will enhance the country's economic strength. Domestic energy resources in the country are helping to spur economic development and industrial wheels. The external dimension of the national income increases, increase economic partners, strategic and economic cooperation will ultimately create dependency. Participation in various forms of oil and gas pipeline network and increase our share of the energy market. Participation in the upstream sector investment, particularly in our ability to enhance energy diplomacy.
Our unique geopolitical position allows us to become the region's center of trade and distribution. Energy corridors in the region and the world market, Iran's position has improved. And the transfer of energy from the soil and producing energy consuming nations are somehow related to Iran.
Located in the region between the two main areas of focus and energy in the universe, Close proximity to the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea areas of energy, transport, express geostrategic position in the global energy security. Iran’s position on the issue of power and control, and close proximity to Iran and other Persian Gulf oil transport routes for Caspian energy routes has caused the shifting geopolitical energy transfer to Iran, provided the geostrategic power production.
 
Conclusion
In the current world, national security and the interests of oil-producing countries, the extent of their role in global energy security is concerned, Iran also should consider their national interests, and the appropriate role of the state in this field should take. In case of national security-driven development approach, and interaction and collaboration rather than confrontation with the global system to choose, many potential opportunities working with the world's major energy consumers such as the Europe Union, China, India and Japan are at a loss, to be revived. Adopt national security-driven development approach with an interactive view of the global system, whereas the wake of the adoption of such an approach is less political divisions, While the formation of long-term and short-term investments in Iran provides, Obstacles to the conclusion of treaties of energy supply, particularly the supply of natural gas to Europe from the Indian subcontinent and East picks. If this is true with regard to energy security and a deeper look at the national security and interests of national security and national interests tied, the countries threaten the security and national interests are more sensitive and more resilient.geo economic look as if adopting such an approach, the geopolitics of energy increases the economic powers - be. Economic strength, national development will lead to Factor and its influence on other aspects of our national strength is becoming National security is a positive result.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitics of energy
  • energy Security
  • National Power
  • national security
  • Iran