ارزیابی جغرافیای تروریسم در جنوب شرقی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - استادیار جغرافیا، دانشگاه شیراز

2 - کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

جغرافیای تروریسم به بررسی تأثیراتی که جغرافیا بر شکل‌دهی پدیده تروریسم در سطح فضاهای جغرافیایی دارد، می‌پردازد. در ایران نیز ویژگی‌های جغرافیایی و ژئوپلیتیکی کشور به‌خصوص در مناطق مرزی و حاشیه‌ای تأثیر زیادی در شکل‌گیری و فعالیت گروهک‌های تروریستی داشته است. این تأثیرگذاری در جنوب شرقی ایران بسیار حادتر و عینی‌تر است. در واقع پاره‌ای از زمینه‌های جغرافیایی (طبیعی و انسانی) مانند: بنیادهای زیستی ضعیف، فاصله زیاد از مرکز سیاسی حکومت، وجود عوارض جغرافیایی وسیع، توسعه نامتوازن منطقه‌ای، تفاوت قومی- مذهبی با حکومت مرکزی، مرزی بودن و ضعف شبکه ارتباطی و ... به‌عنوان عوامل درون‌زا و تعدادی از عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی مانند: ویژگی‌های حکومت‌های همسایه، قدرت‌های منطقه‌ای و فرامنطقه‌ای و ژئوپلیتیک مواد مخدر به‌عنوان عوامل برون‌زا دارای بیشترین میزان اثرگذاری در شکل‌گیری گروهک‌های تروریستی در جنوب شرقی کشور می‌باشند. در این مقاله تلاش شده است ضمن بررسی جغرافیای تروریسم در جنوب شرقی کشور، ویژگی‌های جغرافیایی و ژئوپلیتیکی مؤثر در شکل‌گیری و فعالیت گروهک‌های تروریستی در این منطقه مورد بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار ‌‌گیرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Geography of Terrorism in the Southeast of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Izady 1
  • Aliakbar Dabiri 2
1 - Assistant Professor of Geography, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 - M.A Student of Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Geography of terrorism investigates the role of geography in the creationof terrorism in geographical space levels. In Iran, in particular in boundary and periphery regions, geopolitical and geographical traits have an important role in the creation of terrorism. This matter is very objective in the southeast of Iran.In fact, some geographical contexts (physical and human)like: weak vital fundaments, having high distance from political centre of state, existing vast geographical phenomena, asymmetrical regional development, ethnic- religious differences with central state, existence in boundary region and weak communication network and etc. as internal factors and some geopolitical factors like: trait of neighbor countries, regional and supra- regional powers and drug geopolitics as external factors have the most profound in the formation of terrorist groups in southeast of Iran. This article tries to investigate geography of terrorism in southeast, geopolitical and geographical traits affecting the formation terrorist groups and their activities in this region.
 
Methodology
In this article, we have used the descriptive and analytical methods. The required data is collected through library resources, documents and statistical data of scientific websites. In this study with due attention to its special particulars, has been used form enough maps.
 
Discussion
Iran's geographical and geopolitical features, especially in the South East region of the country have had a significant impact on the formation and activities of terrorist groups. These factors can be divided into two categories which include: Endogenous factors that are rooted in geographical fields (natural and human) and Exogenous factors that have a geopolitical entity. In this region, the geographical factors (natural and human) that provide the fields of formation and activities of terrorists Include: weakness in the foundations of biological, Topography and there are the broad geographic complications, geographical isolation and relatively long distance from capital, unbalanced regional development, demographic characteristics, ethnic and religious differences with the central government, tribal system and ethnic and religious links with the beyond boundary, being at the border and poor communication network. Geographical characteristics mentioned above have created conditions such as: the creation of wide uninhabited spaces, suitable space for hiding and escape, reduction of government oversight and authority, feeling of deprivation, feeling of humiliation and social gaps, illegally crossing of the border, the divergence of law and central government, distrust of central government policies. Actually, these are the intermediate variables in shaping the phenomenon of terrorism in south-east country. In addition, geopolitical characteristics the region which includes geopolitics of drugs, involvement of regional and trans-regional powers, the characteristics of neighbor government, are effective in creating insecurity through transit of drugs, crossing of armed bandits, advertising and promotion of Wahhabi and Deobandism and also Issuance of crisis and insecurity from neighboring countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan) to the south east of Iran.
 
Conclusion
Totally, formation of terrorism groups such as Jundallah in south- eastern of Iran has many factors and reasons that most of them have geographical and geopolitics aspects. It must be consider that this factors caused terrorism formation and activity totally and with each other, each of them strengthen and feed in relation of other factors. Therefore formation of terrorism phenomenon in south- eastern of country is the effect geographical basis compound as inner and basic factory and geopolitical particulars as external and outward factors.   
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Terrorism
  • Terrorist groups
  • Terrorism geography
  • Sistan and Balouchestan
  • Iran