تبیین ژئوپلیتیک روابط قدرت در منطقه شبه‌قاره هند پس از وقایع 11 سپتامبر 2001م

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ـ دانش‌آموخته جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه مدرس

2 ـ دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت

3 ـ استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

4 ـ دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات

چکیده

وقایع 11 سپتامبر 2001م. نقطه عطفی در تحولات ژئوپلیتیک و مناسبات قدرت در منطقه شبه‌قاره هند به‌شمار می‌رود. مقوله‌ای که به‌شدت تحت تأثیر موقعیت جغرافیایی و نقش جدید هند به‌عنوان قدرت نوظهور در عرصة سیاست‌های جهانی از یک طرف و گزاره‌های امنیتی و سیاسی جدید ایالات متحده آمریکا پس از حادثه فوق، از طرف دیگر قرار گرفته است.  
پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی درصدد برآمده است تا ضمن بررسی و تحلیل علل و زمینه‌های مناسبات و روابط قدرت در منطقه ژئوپلیتیک شبه‌قاره هند تحت تأثیر فضای سیاسی- امنیتی غالب بر سیاست‌های جهانی پس از حادثه 11 سپتامبر 2001م، الگوی روابط ژئوپلیتیک بین منطقه شبه‌قاره هند با بازیگران مطرح نظام جهانی را ارائه دهد. براساس دستآوردهای این پژوهش، روابط قدرت در شبه‌قاره هند با نظام جهانی به‌شدت تحت تأثیر روابط هند با ایالات متحده آمریکا و سایر بازیگران مطرح در نظام ژئوپلیتیک جهانی قرار گرفته و براساس الگوی تعاملی در جریان است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical Elucidate of the Power Relations in the Indian Subcontinent after 11 Sptember 2001

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Hosseinpour Pouyan 1
  • Pirouz Mojtahedzadeh 2
  • Mohamedreza Hafeznia 3
  • Ezzatolah Ezzati 4
1 - PhD of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 - Associate Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 - Full Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 - Associate Professor of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Events of 11 September 2001 are Turning point in the power relations and geopolitical changes in the Indian subcontinent region, that has been influenced Heavily by the geographical location and new role of India as emerging powers in world politics scene on one hand, and the new political and security strategies of the United States after the above incident, on the other hand. Present study, has been attempted with using descriptive - analytical method not only to study and analyze the causes and context relations of power in the geopolitical region of the Indian subcontinent under the influence of political and security space prevailing on word politics after the event 11 September 2001, but also to provide pattern geopolitical relations between the Indian subcontinent with global actors. Based on these study achievements, power relations in the Indian subcontinent with world order has been influenced heavily by India's relations with the United States.
 
Introduction
The 11 September 2001 event has caused a deep change the security, politics and international options of U.S.A’s foreign policy so that American foreign policy of deterrence was changed to preventive and preemptive policy. Accordingly Us security strategy sees India as rising power, key ally Pakistan, Afghanistan cited as epicenter of global terrorism. The result of this security strategy, was of high strategic role the Indian subcontinent was of high strategic role as a separate and particular region in world politics after September 11 the United States and other actors in geopolitics of the  world system, including Russia, China and Europe, so that relations between countries that are currently as much as important to the region (India and Pakistan) with the actors in the global system, that not easily analyzed without understanding the security and geopolitical developments in the region and the world after September 11.
 
Methodology
Methods In this study is descriptive-analytic. With due attention to, The Nature of subject studied, for data collection has been used library documents Methods, from documents and events. Accordingly, the library facts and events citations have been considered  as a basis to analyze the findings and test specific hypotheses.
 
Results and Disruption
 
India's relations with the United States and the formation of the strategic triangle of India, U.S.A and Pakistan
Given the developments after 11 September 2001, and based on evidences, India's relations with the United States are an important strategic relationship based on common national interests.  The special attention of the United States to India may be due to these three major factors: firstly, India as  the country's rapid economic development and significantly improving its position in international politics, which in combination with other components of its power, will has enjoyed Indian from the standards of "great power",  second, With this situation, India is considered as appropriate options  for establishing and balancing of power in Asia, especially in the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Thirdly, India as a major power in South Asia can play as an important role and a participant in against terrorists aims of the United States.
 
People's Republic of China: competing in the region and global allied
The global terrorism as a global common interest plays a role in order to close the two countries .Russia, China and India during the last decades not only faced the threat of terrorism, but also suffered from it. In this way, the three countries are natural geopolitical allies in the struggle against international terrorism. It can be stated that these countries oppose the policy of ’double standards’ evaluating the measures taken against terror acts committed on their territories.
 
Russia: Regional and global partners
Indians and Russians are now taking a more realistic and nuanced look at the relationship.17 Furthermore, Russia today has other immediate concerns, most pressingly the need to re-establish its economy and internal stability. Russia also needs peace on its borders while it rebuilds itself. Many of these factors, and hard cash besides, motivate Russian relations with China, particularly its troubling arms supply relations. Russia hopes to postpone any potential conflict with China until Russia is ready; China’s calculus may be similar.
India has much to gain by Russia’s rise, but wishing it will not make it so. Russia will remain a relatively minor power for some time to come, but there are good reasons to not discard Russia nevertheless. Despite the irritation and unhappiness felt by both sides in some recent arms deals, the relationship has sufficiently deep roots to survive. There is a comfort in the relationship that might usefully be preserved for the future; Russia’s weapons laboratories still produce some of the world’s best military equipment, and Moscow is willing to sell them to India. Furthermore, despite its relative weakness, Moscow still has a useful presence in places like the UN Security Council, which is beneficial to India. Russia does worry about India’s increasingly close ties with Washington. But unlike China, Russia has little to fear directly fro this relationship. Nevertheless, India needs to work harder with Russia given Moscow’s importance in India’s strategic calculus.
 
Moving Towards India–EU
India's relations with Europe Union have developed only in the economic. Attitudes on both sides in political affairs and important international issues, have overshadowed them on political and diplomatic relations.
‘Javier Solana’ the EU’s foreign policy chief, does not see India as a priority’. Therefore, he feels that ‘the EU needs to pay more attention to its still under-developed political relationship with India’ (Grant 2008). The Indo–EU dialogue lacks anything substantial on questions of a diplomatic or geo–strategic character’. Similarly, the EU is hardly a factor in India’s foreign policy debates.
 
Conclusion
Power relations in the Indian subcontinent after the events of 11 September 2001 based on common interests with the United States, India, China, Russia and Europe on issues like the global fight against terrorism, India as an emerging great power, India's important role in the economy, India as an important partner in global and American economies, particularly India's geopolitical position in the Indian Ocean and ... is formed based on interaction and collaboration.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitical Relations
  • Power Relations
  • the Indian Subcontinent
  • Geopolitics of the World System