ارائه الگوی مناسب حکمروایی خوب روستایی در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ـ دانشیار جغرافیا، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 ـ دانش‌آموخته جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 ـ استادیار جغرافیا، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

4 ـ دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

رهیافت حکمروایی خوب روستایی، فرایند تأثیرگذاری همه ارکان اثرگذار روستایی برمدیریت روستایی با تمام ساز و کارهایی است که به‌سوی تعالی و پیشرفت روستا و مردم روستایی حرکت می‌کند، مقاله حاضر به بررسی وضعیت حکمروایی روستایی در 50 روستای شهرستان‌های بهشهر، آمل و چالوس در استان مازندران می‌پردازد و در پی پاسخگویی به این سوال است که باتوجه به تجارب جهانی، الگو و مدل مناسب مدیریت نوین روستایی مبتنی بر رهیافت حکمروایی خوب روستایی در ایران کدام است؟ برای پاسخگویی به این سوال دیدگاهها و تجربیات جهانی مورد بررسی و مطالعه قرار گرفت و هشت شاخص مهم حکمروایی خوب یعنی مشارکت، مسئولیت‌پذیری، پاسخگویی، قانونمندی، شفافیت، توافق جمعی، کارایی و اثربخشی و عدالت‌محوری در روستاهای نمونه مورد آزمون قرارگرفته و از 500 خانوار روستایی، گویه‌های هرشاخص با استفاده از طیف لیکرت مورد پرسش قرارگرفت، سپس داده‌های به‌دست آمده با استفاده از آزمون آماری ‏T مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصله از آزمون آماری نشان می‌دهد که حکمروایی خوب روستایی دراکثر روستاهای مورد مطالعه از وضعیت مناسبی برخوردار نبوده و نظام ساختاری روستا برآمده از عدم وجود تعادل یا همزیستی بین کنشگران (دولت، بازار و جامعه مدنی) با تأکید بر رهیافت مکانیکی به‌جای رهیافت انسان‌گرا و نیز برنامه‌ریزی کارشناسانه به‌جای برنامه‌ریزی مشارکتی بوده که الگوی پیشنهادی (مطلوب) برای حکمروایی خوب روستایی باید به آن توجه نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presentation of an Appropriate Rural Good Governance Model in Iran Case study: Rural Areas of Mazandaran Provience in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdoreza Roknaldin Eftekhari 1
  • Jalal Azimi Amoli 2
  • Mehdi Pourtaheri 3
  • Zahra Ahmadypour 4
1 - Associate Professor of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 - PhD of Geography and Rural Planning, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 - Assistant Professor of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 - Associate Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
If governance contains government interaction, citizenship or civil institutions through political process, governments then will be particular institutions that have been participated in governance and they would like to answer to the following questions: who have to intervene in determination and with which capacity? 
Based on these evidences, governance has been considered hierarchy sequences of government power accompany with people participation, local institutions and None Government Organization (N.G.O). According to this situation, humanities approach will be replaced to mechanical approach in an acceptable developmental process. According to this description, we can say rural good governance is an effective process for all rural effective elements on rural management will be all mechanisms which move towards rural development and rural people. According to this definition, decision making about rural development should be carried out by all persons who are stakeholders and effectiveness and should be based on fairness, freedom and selective right for rural people. Therefore, whenever rural good governance approach can be performed in Iran rural society, freedom, human greatness, social justice, environmental sustainable, development of local institutes for social security, reliance on social capitals, attention to inner- area productive fundamental, rural empowering will be achieved.
 
Methodology
This paper seeks to answer the question: “What are the roles of Geopolitical challenges that Research method in this article is based on library and field studies so that eight indicators such as, participation, accountability, responsibility, consensus oriented, justice and equity, rule of law, efficiency and effectiveness, transparency, rural good governance situation will be analyzed in 50 rural located in Behshahr, Amol, Chalous, sampling society which is under investigation in this research includes 500 rural households. Gathering instrument for information contained a rural household questionnaire which has been asked through Likert spectrum template and the reliability level of questionnaire questions is based on Alpha Cronboch index which has been accounted 87 percent and is representative of its high trust index. TOPSIS technique has been used for rural ranking in terms of rural governance situation that has been accounted a priority index (CI) for each of studied village and villages have been categorized into 3 groups in terms of total average of weights such as villages with good governance, villages with average governance and rural with weak governance.
 
Result and Discussion
Resulted outcomes in research have indicated this fact that all indices for rural good governance have been significance in the studied areas and there are significant meaningful in terms of rural good governance between villages. The most important reasons to increase the level of rural good governance in plain and mountainside are easy availability to city centers, cultural exchanges existed between city and rural. The resulted outcomes in one sample t-test for all rural good governance variables represent that participatory indices, efficiency, effectiveness and accountability has been allocated in the highest average, transparency indices, consensus oriented  and rule of law with the least average. The resulted outcomes in field studies show that institutional-social processes in rural good governance approach have been priority more than the other processes (such as, economical, environmental, etc.) and the pivotal affair must also be founded on democracy environment, value-oriented and participatory-based. The other outcomes resulted from field researches are that rural good governance can affect on rural sustainable development in different aspects so that there are correlation and significant relationship between these two concepts. 
 
Conclusion
The most important resulted outcomes in this research is about establishment and institutional rural good governance which contain change in developmental view from “development in any value” to “sustainable development”, strength in dynamic efficiency infrastructure for technical information and communication, empowering  of  local societies and rural people institutions, attention to the rights of people and places for development, and etc.
Based on the achieved studies and presuppositions for the strength of ideal pattern in rural good governance, a localized suitable pattern for rural areas in our countries has been designed which contains input, strategic concepts, activity (process), output, outcome (result) and impact, that has been resulted to sustainability in all dimensions and will achieve to rural sustainable development.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rural Good Governance
  • Participatory Planning
  • Rural Empowerment
  • Mazandaran Province
  • Iran