رویکرد هند در قبال افغانستان پس از 11 سپتامبر 2001:با نگاه به ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 - استادیار علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 - دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه اصفهان

3 - استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور

چکیده

دکترین کلان سیاست خارجی هند کشورها را به سه دایره متحدالمرکز تقسیم می‌کند که افغانستان در درون دایره نخست قرار می‌گیرد. بنابراین، این کشور دارای اهمیت ویژه‌‌ای در سیاست خارجی هند است. هند که در زمان تسلط طالبان بر افغانستان نفوذ خود را در این کشور از دست داده بود، پس از 11 سپتامبر رویکردی مثبت و همکاری‌جویانه نسبت به این کشور داشته است. هند درصدد است تا با نقش‌آفرینی بیشتر در تحولات داخلی افغانستان و کمک به بازسازی این کشور، نفوذ دشمن دیرینه خود ـ پاکستان - را کاهش داده و به «محاصره سیاسی» این کشور بپردازد. در این راستا هند سعی کرده است تا با دیگر قدرت‌های منطقه‌ای و تأثیرگذار در افغانستان، نظیر ایران، در زمینه‌های مختلف همکاری داشته باشد. این پژوهش در پی پاسخگویی به این سوال است که افغانستان چه جایگاهی در استراتژی «محاصره سیاسی» هند داشته و این کشور چه رویکردی نسبت به دولت جدید افغانستان داشته است؟ از آنجا که تحولات داخلی افغانستان می‌تواند تأثیر مستقیمی در امنیت ملی ایران داشته باشد و نیز از آنجا که هند در استراتژی‌های سیاست خارجی ایران- بویژه سیاست نگاه به شرق ایران- جایگاه ویژه‌‌ای دارد و این پژوهش نیز به تجزیه و تحلیل روابط هند و افغانستان می‌پردازد، می‌توان آن را حائز اهمیت تلقی کرد. هدف این پژوهش نیز تبیین و شناخت جایگاه افغانستان در سیاست «محاصره سیاسی» هند و تبیین رویکرد این کشور نسبت به دولت جدید افغانستان با نگاه به ایران است. روش تحقیق در پژوهش حاضر، روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و گردآوری مطالب نیز به شیوه کتابخانه-ای انجام گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

India Approach toward Afghanistan after September 11, 2001(with look to Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nowzar Shafiee 1
  • Shahriar Faraji Nasiri 2
  • Afshin Mottaghi 3
1 - Assistant Professor of Political Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
2 - PhD Student of Political Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
3 - Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
India in recent years has become into a major regional power and a key player in the global system and with considerable speed toward becoming a great world power is going to. Undoubtedly, the Indian foreign policy positions and what changes occur in a region at least in South Asia and even the whole Asia will adopt and follow, Can significantly affect the development trajectory and its consequences. Therefore, future stability and security in South Asia largely depend on the beliefs of India. India’s in their strategic plans have been their top priority in Sosuth Asia and Afghanistan because of the look of Indian’s is the range of South Asia, has a particular importance in foreign policy of this country. Thus, Indian’s always in the history of Afghanistan have a special look. This research investigated the importance and strategic position of Afghanistan in India's foreign policy, pays to India's role in rebuilding Afghanistan and also this country's approach towards the new government of Afghanistan after September 11, 2001. These researches also considered the differences in approach to Iran and India, towards the new government of Afghanistan and pay the two countries' common interests and background for further cooperation in Afghanistan. 
 
Methodology
The research question is: What’s India approach toward Afghanistan after September 11, 2001? This research also has two subsidiary questions are as follows: What’s the Afghanistan position in foreign policy of India's? And, what are the common field’s cooperation between Iran and India in Afghanistan? The main objective of this study is explaining Indian approach towards Afghanistan after September 11, 2001. Research methods in this study are descriptive - analytical. Due to the nature and type of subject studied, the data collection was done mainly to libraries and the Internet and research findings and analysis is a qualitative manner.
 
Results and Discussion 
Afghanistan is a very important geopolitical position in the Indian foreign policy; because the India strategic partnership with Afghanistan, expand "strategic depth" of India to Central Asian and not only prevent the encirclement of India by China and Pakistan, But makes arrived blockade and inhibition of multiple pressures on Pakistan. Thus, India in different periods without considering the type of Kabul regimes, Always had good relations with these regimes and had cooperation approach towards them. In This research relations between India and Afghanistan is divided into two periods: before and after September 11, 2001. India in Afghanistan after September 11 has been privileged position; this reason, the sensitivity of some countries including its long-standing rival, Pakistan has been rose. India has helped to rebuild Afghanistan after September 11 amount to 1/2 billion dollars and this amount has become India's largest donor countries to Afghanistan in the region. Of course, in helping to rebuild Afghanistan, India has cooperated with some regional powers like Iran that this cooperation has occurred in three major fields: 1) survival of the current government of Afghanistan, 2) Afghanistan economic development; 3) transit cooperation.
 
Conclusion
India's strategy towards Afghanistan after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, was based on the following three: Participation in economic development, supporting the Afghan central government and attempts to prevent the Taliban back to power again. Overall we can say that India's approach towards the new government of Afghanistan after the September 11, 2001, has been a cooperative and positive approach. Indian influence in Afghanistan has re-acquired after 11 September. India's prestige is growing in Afghanistan and this ties whit Kabul in various fields is expanding rapidly. But certainly, the most important regional rivals India –Pakistan- will not sit unemployed and will perform actions against Indian influence in Afghanistan that one of these actions is to support and strengthen the Taliban, especially if these groups are re-entered the government of Afghanistan, Pakistan’s role and influence will increasing in Afghanistan.
     
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitics
  • Political Surrounding
  • India
  • Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Pakistan
  • South Asia