تحلیل نقش جمعیت کلان‌شهر تهران در قدرت ملی کشور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ـ دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت معلم

2 - استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز

3 - دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

قدرت ملی به‌عنوان مفهومی ژئوپلیتیکی، ویژگی و صفت جمعی افراد یک ملت را منعکس می‌نماید و هم‌زمان به‌عنوان یک صفت فردی در رابطه با یک کشور و یک دولت تجلی پیدا میکند. بنابراین مجموعه انسان هایی که تشکیل ملتی را داده که در شکل یک کشور سازمان سیاسی پیدا کرده‌اند دارای قدرتی می‌باشند که از بر‌آیند قوای ترکیب شده آنها به‌دست میآید و می توان آن را قدرت ملی آن کشور دانست. مردم یکی از عناصر مهم وجودی هر حکومت می‌باشند. موضوع جمعیت یکی از مباحث جامعه‌شناسی، جغرافیای‌جمعیت و جغرافیای-انسانی محسوب می‌گردد، ولی اثر بخشی سیاسی آن در جغرافیای سیاسی مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. جمعیت و ویژگی‌های آن به‌عنوان یک عامل مؤثر در توسعه و قدرت ملی کشور محسوب می‌گردد. برخی عوامل و متغیرها مانند تعداد جمعیت ممکن است در یک کشور دارای کارکرد مثبت بوده و در کشور دیگر کارکرد منفی داشته باشد اما جمعیت کلان‌شهرتهران با توجه به روند تغییراتی که از گذشته تا به امروز داشته است از لحاظ کمی و کیفی وضعیت مشخصی نداشته و بدون برنامه‌ریزی به‌صورت لکه‌ای در پهنه جغرافیایی کشور دیده می‌شود که در سطح ملی کشور را با چالش‌های اساسی مواجه کرده است. این پژوهش مقاله با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی به بررسی نقش جمعیت کلان‌شهر تهران در قدرت ملی کشور پرداخته است و یافته‌های حاصل از آن نشان می‌دهد کلان‌شهر تهران با وضعیت جمعیتی حال حاضر در قدرت ملی دارای کارکرد منفی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing the Role of Tehran Population in National Power

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Mohammadian 1
  • Gholam Hassan Heidari 2
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf 3
1 - Ph.D Student of Geography and Urban Planning, Tarbiat Moaalem University, Tehran, Iran
2 - Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 - Associate Professor of Political Geography, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

National power as a geopolitical concept, reflects the collective characteristics and traits of a nation, and at the same time shows the personal trait in relation to state and government. In other words, people forming a nation, create a political organization and by and through combination their potentials, a power which can be considered as the national power of a state or nation, exists. opulation is the most important element among other elements forming a state. In other words, a state must have population, otherwise it would not be considered as a state. Population as a matter is studied in sociology and human geography, but its political effect is studied in the political geography. Population and its characteristics are considered as effective factors in the development of a state and its national power. Some factors and inoneone a state and negative effects in other state, but according to the changes occurred in Tehran’s population throughout its history, there has been no research that shows certain qualitative and quantitative effects. The population in Tehran has grown without any planning as a spot on the geographical region, which has faced the country with big challenges.
 
Methodology
This research is a descriptive- analytical and the data collection done by using statistical resources (descriptive statistics) the results of population and housing census books, articles and research reports and statistical analysis used, where appropriate.
 
Discussion and Results
The population of Tehran in 1806 was only 0.4 percent of the population of Iran, whilst 200 years Later, in 2006, it constituted 11.3 percent of whole population of the country. Reviewing different historical periods by considering Tehran population with regard to those historical turning points, shows that from 1843 to 1931, the population of Tehran became 7 times larger, 75 years later i.e. from 1931 to 2006 its population became 37.9 times bigger. Therefore, the first thingwe should take into consideration that Tehran is a big population huband will remain so in the future. The rapid growth of population is largely due to immigration from all over Iran to Tehran that may cause different challenges in the city. Therefore, the main question of this study is how the population and its characteristics in Tehran affect the national power? In other words will the current population of Tehran face the country with big challenges at the national level? Does it have negative effects on various aspects of national power? Thus, the study evaluates the role of Tehran’s population on the national power according to some indicators, including quantitative and qualitative aspects of the population, such as geographic distribution of the population, migration, composition or structure of the population, homogeneity, or heterogeneity of the population and cultural- social values of the people.
 
Conclusion
City is a social-spatial entity in which power and policy, as pivotal ingredients of the Politics, are interlinked. Cities, especially big cities, are considered geographical focal points for power and wealth. Due to continuous increase of population, Tehran has become one of the biggest metropolises in the world which according to its historical changes in population, there has been no recognized qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The population in Tehran has grown without any plan as a spot on the geographical region, which has faced the country with serious challenges. This metropolis due to its high political, cultural, social, economical and administrational importance plays such a role that influences every aspects of development in the national level. We have reviewed and analyzed different aspects of the population, after focusing on quantitative issues such as number of the population, and qualitative issues like social and cultural values, homogeneity or heterogeneity of the population, composition or structure of the population and geographic distribution of the population, concluded that Tehran, according to its current status of population plays a negative role in the national level. In other words, population of this metropolis reduces the national power instead of increasing it.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Metropolis
  • Tehran
  • population
  • National Power
  • Iran