جایگاه مفهوم فضای حیاتی در شکل‌گیری سیاست خارجی عراق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 ـ استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت معلم

2 ـ دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

برآورد قدرت ملی در شرایط کنونی و ترسیم وضعیت مطلوب که متضمن منافع و امنیت ملی باشد حاکمان و نخبگان سیاسی را به تدوین استراتژی ژئوپلیتیک وا می‌دارد. تدوین استراتژی‌ها در پیوند با دیگر قدرت‌های منطقه‌ای و فرامنطقه‌ای و همچنین فرصت‌ها و محدودیت‌ها است. از این‌رو، نظام‌های سیاسی کوشیده‌اند تا از طریق تصرف یا نفوذ در سرزمین‌هایی که می‌تواند مکمل ژئوپلیتیک آنها باشد به رفع محدودیت‌ها(سرزمینی و منابع) بپردازند. مقاله حاضر به تشریح این مسئله می‌پردازد که تنگنای ژئوپلیتیک عراق در عدم دسترسی آسان به آبهای آزاد به سیاست خارجی این کشور ماهیتی تهاجمی بخشیده، سیاستی که حتی پس از فروپاشی نظام بعث از طریق سیاستمداران عراقی بارها در قالب لغو یا تغییر مفاد قرارداد الجزایر در ارتباط با ایران طرح مسئله شده است. به‌نظر می‌رسد که چالش پایدار ژئوپلیتیک عراق در عدم دسترسی مناسب آن کشور به دریاهای آزاد از طریق خلیج فارس و وابستگی آن به بخش‌هایی از خاک ایران همواره بر مناسبات عراق با ایران سایه خواهد افکند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of Lebensraum as a Concept in Forming Iraq Foreign Policy and Political Behavior

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morad Kavianirad 1
  • Chamran Booye 2
1 - Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Moaalem University, Tehran, Iran
2 -M.A Student of Political Geography,Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Assessing the national power in the current situation and creating favorable situation which involves national security interests, require rulers and political elites to consider the geopolitical strategy. Strategy forms in the relation with other regional and international powers and environmental constraints and opportunities. Hence, political systems have tried to deal with the territorial and resource constraints by occupying or penetrating into the territories that they can be geopolitical complementary. This article probes the issue of Iraq geopolitical restrictions of accessing to free waters that has caused aggressive behavior to the nature of Iraqi foreign policy and its politicians that frequently decide to cancel or modify the contents of the Algeria treaty in spite of the Baath regime collapse. It seems that the stable geopolitical challenges in Iraq will affect its relations with Iran.
Introduction
Definitions about national power and its components have emphasized on the importance of concrete elements such as size, location, resources, and the number of population, access and ... as the key concepts. Power enforcement and tendency to spread it among human communities and political units has created related concepts and theories. Living Space approach in states foreign policy denotes acquisition of land and its resources for self-sufficiency and national power gain. Such an approach has had prominent role in the emergence of colonialism and expansionism. According to Nazi approach of lebensraum (vital space) with racial bias the expansion of Germany as a central place was justified. It seems that the geopolitical characteristics of Iraq's foreign policy shows aggressive signs which has derived from the lebensraum theory.
 
Methodology
The main research question is: Why Iraq’s Foreign policy has had aggressive nature?
The research hypothesis is: Iraq’s Geopolitical Characteristics has formed its Foreign policy aggressive in behavior. Required information has been gathered from library sources and documents. Required information has been gathered from library sources and documents. The methodology determined descriptive and analytical, to analyze the role of lebensraum (living space) theory in Iraq’s foreign policy.
 
Discussion and Results
Efforts to strengthen national power and to influence the transnational relations, forms states foreign policy. Geopolitical factors and variables affect the national power. Enjoyment or Privation of the extensive land, location, resources have led to opportunities and constraints for state. Lebensraum (living space) theory directs Governments to define the situation and favorable conditions which provides Geopolitical strategy, by considering violence, war and the land Expansion. The term Lebensraum in this sense was coined by Friedrich Ratzel in 1901, and was used as a slogan in Germany referring to the unification of the country and the acquisition of colonies, based on the English and French models, and the westward expansion of the United States. Chaotic condition of Germany after world war I. caused the Lebensraum theory to become operational in which devastating consequences created on global scale.
 
Conclusion
Iraq’s geopolitical situation and its immutable geopolitical components and factors, make its foreign relations challenging, which lead Iraq’s Geopolitical Characteristics to appear aggressive in behavior.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Living Space
  • Foreign Policy
  • Geopolitics
  • Iraq
  • Arvand river
  • Persian Gulf