تحلیل پدیده‌های جغرافیایی و سیاسی در شکل‌گیری بحران دارفور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

ـ استادیار مرکز مطالعات آفریقا دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

بحران دارفور ناشی از دخالت چندین عامل به هم پیوسته است؛ این بحران در نابرابری ‌های اجتماعی و سیاسی بین مرکز و شمال کشور سودان با دیگر مناطق ریشه دارد که با عواملی مانند خشکسالی، رشد جمعیت، بیابان‌زایی تشدید شده است و فرصت‌طلبی‌های سیاسی و سیاست‌های منطقه‌ای آن را به یک بحران فرامنطقه‌ای تبدیل کرده است. گرچه آمریکا، انگلیس و کشورهای غربی و نیز سازمان ملل کوشیدند بحران دارفور را درگیری‌های قومی و قبیله‌ای و جنگ بین عرب‌ها و آفریقائی‌ها و در چارچوب نقض حقوق بشر از سوی حکومت سودان القا کنند و با سوءاستفاده از این اهرم فشارهای لازم را بر دولت سودان وارد آورند، ولی به نظر می‌رسد علل بحران و ریشه‌های آن فراتر از یک درگیری قومی، قبیله‌ای و نژادی بر سر مراتع و چراگاه‌ها و تخریب اراضی آفریقائی‌های بومی توسط اعراب به هنگام کوچ کردن باشد. در این راستا باید عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی ناشی از انزوای جغرافیایی و سیاسی، تغییرات آب و هوا و مشکلات عدم فراگیری اقتدار دولت مرکزی به نواحی پیرامونی را که از یک الگوی مرکز ـ پیرامون تبعیت می‌کند به همراه وسعت زیاد کشور، قلمرو گسترده و نبود پیوستگی بین مسلمانان شمال و نواحی پیرامونی را در این بحران دخیل دانست. منازعه دارفور را می توان در بحران‌های کنترل و توزیع منابع، بحران هویت و مداخلات خارجی که به بحران مشروعیت منجر شود و در نهایت کاهش قدرت مرکزی تفسیر کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Analysis of Geographical and Political Phenomena in Formation of Darfur Crises

نویسنده [English]

  • Ahmad Bakhshi
Assistant Professor of African Study Center, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran- Iran
چکیده [English]

Sudan enjoys significant geopolitical position in the Dark Continent as the largest country in Africa. The vast outspread of this country bearing natural sources such as oil, gold and a variety of mine sources has given high diversity to this country. Also, Sudan bears a prominent status in the region and the Islamic world in political and cultural aspects. Therefore, it has constantly been a prey for the colonizers and one of the most important spots for great international disputes. A review of the transformations in the region level and this country shows that several of the crises, added to the internal and regional disputes, particularly disputes of the district countries with Sudan, has been based on the benefits and desires of colonizing and beyond district countries. On the other hand the opposition of certain country parts with the central government and the enforcement of one-sided policies by the central government, in addition to the crises in the south of the country, has gradually led to crises in identity, resource distribution and ultimately civil war between the central government and theinhabitants of the western part of the country. The Darfur crises arises from the intervention of a few interlinked factors; it has roots in social unfairness between the center and north of Sudan with other regions which has furthermore intensified with factors such as famine, growth population growth and appearance of desserts, whereas political expediencies and regional policies has turned it to a crises beyond a territorial crises. The United States, the United Kingdom and western countries, in addition to the United Nations, made an attempt to induct the Darfur crises as ethnical and racial struggles, and suggested that it was a war between the Arabs and Africans which was interpreted as the violation of human rights by the Sudan government, misusing this device for putting pressure on the Sudan government. Still, it seems that the causes of the crises and it roots go beyond a simple ethnical, racial and tribal struggle for meadows, greeneries and the destruction of the lands of the local Africans by the Arabs during migration. In this respect these issues have intervened and should therefore be considered in causing the crises; geopolitical factors which have roots in geographical and political isolation, change in the climate, problems related to lack of spreading the central government to other regions which pursues a central- peripheral pattern, along with the high outspread of the country, vast scope, lack of unity between the Muslims of north and the peripheral areas, the bad performance of the elite in the crises control, the opposition of the Sudan government with the governing policies regarding the international system and the attempt of the external powers for making a change in the behavior and even the government in Sudan, the role of South Peace Talks in the acceleration of the crises, in addition to the role of the neighborhood countries. The Darfur dispute can be analyzed and interpreted in the control andresource distribution crises, identity crises and external interferences which can lead to the crises of legitimacy and ultimately decrease the central power and authority. The major question of the present article is; what are the impacts of geographical and political factors in the formation and persistence of Darfur's crises? This research is based on a hypothesis; the most significant factor in the formation of this crises (initial factors) are political and a result of a gap between different country regions; especially south and west with the north and center, while its persistence has led to ethnical and identity crises, resource distribution ( establishment of center and marginal parts in the country) and ultimately the legitimacy crises; whereas geographical factors (particularly changes in climate) and regional and international interventions has resulted in its persistence and solidity. In this article the status of Darfur as a land, the formation of political groups and their demands, the foundation of center-periphery, the effects of climate change and political and geopolitical transformations related to the Darfur crises are surveyed in a descriptive-analysis and statistical method. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sudan
  • Darfur's crises
  • identity and legitimacy crises
  • Climate change