واکاوی رقابت ایران و ترکیه در بحران سوریه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 تهران. دانشگاه تربیت مدرس. دانشکده علوم انسانی. بخش جغرافیای سیاسی

2 تهران، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده علوم انسانی، بخش روابط بین الملل

چکیده

بحران سوریه یکی از پیچیده‌ترین بحران‌های جوامع عربی است که با گذشت چندین سال ادامه دارد. ایران و ترکیه به عنوان دو کشور منطقه‌ای از ابتدا در این بحران وارد شده و با هدف تغییر نقشه سیاسی و موازنه قدرت در خاورمیانه، سعی بر کنترل اوضاع سوریه دارند. تلاش در جهت این مهم، آنها را به سمت رقابتی بی سابقه مبتنی بر متغیرهای ایدئولوژیکی و هویتی وارد کرده است. این مسئله در حالی است که دو کشور تا قبل از بحران سوریه در ابعاد مختلف  با یکدیگر همکاری می‌کردند و مطابق سیاست جدید ترکیه خواهان به صفر رساندن تنش با همسایگان بودند. به همین علت با توجه به وجود زمینه های همکاری میان دو کشور و سیاست مبتنی بر تعامل ترکیه این سوال ایجاد می‌شود  که الگوی رفتاری مبتنی بر رقابت و تعارض دو کشور در بحران سوریه چگونه قابل تحلیل است؟ در این راستا پاسخ مقاله بر این اساس شکل می گیرد که در نتیجه برخورد دو متغیر قدرت و منافع، نقش‌های ایران و ترکیه در قالب رقیب-رقیب مقابل یکدیگر ایجاد میشود و وجود نقش‌های متعارض ایران و ترکیه در قالب محافظ برای ایران و تجدیدنظرطلب برای ترکیه آنها را  به سمت تداخل نقش می‌کشاند که مانعی برای اعمال نقش یکدیگر می-باشد. در نتیجه این تداخل نقش و شکل‌گیری نقش رقیب-رقیب برای آن دو، الگوی رفتاری دو کشور به سمت رقابت و تعارض کشیده می‌شود. در این مقاله از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی استفاده شده و برای گردآوری اطلاعات از روش کتابخانه-ای بهره گرفته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying of Iran andTurkey rivalry in Syria crisis

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra ahmadipour 1
  • Seyed Masoud Mousavi Shafaee 2
  • zahra pourdast 2
1 Tehran, Tarbiat Modares university, School of Humanities, political Geography
2 Tehran, Tarbiat Modares University, School of Humanities , International Relations.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract       
Introduction
Syria is one of the most complex crises in Arab societies which lasts for several years. Iran and Turkey as two regional countries entered the crisis from the outset and with the aim of changing the political map and balance of power in the Middle East, trying to control the situation in Syria. their efforts to control the situation in Syria have led them to unprecedented competition, based on ideological and identity variables. This is while the two countries worked together before the Syrian crisis in various dimensions of trade, transportation, diplomacy, and so on  and according to Turkey's new foreign policy, they demanded "zero problem" with their neighbors. That's why, given the areas of cooperation between the two countries and the policy based on the interaction of Turkey, this question will be created.  is how the competition between Iran and Turkey could The results of this research showed that Iran decided to help sustain the rule of the Bashar al-Assad regime as its sole strategic ally in the Middle East. And Turkey want to deposit the rule of the Bashar al-Assad regime and replace by another state.
 
Methodology
In this paper, the descriptive-analytical method has been used and for collecting information, the library method, letters, reports and valid data are used in English and Persian. Also on statistics, the percentage contribution method, indexation, contractual, and the use of its own indexes are used as score. Then with the algebras sum of positive and negative score of variables and the determination of the country's score in each factor, and finally the sum of the score of all factors, the national strength of each country determines.
 
Findings
The findings of the article are as follows:
1-Iran and Turkey, as long as they are at the same level of power, are placed in the form  of two rivals or partners in different issues and levels. 
2- Iran and Turkey on issues whose vital interests are threatened, compete with each other and one of these issues is the Syrian crisis. the Syrian crisis has clearly captured the vital interests of the two countries and according to this, two countries are in conflict with each other in the form of rival – rival.
3- Iran and Turkey on issues that related to their secondary interests, establish a cooperative relationship in the form of two partner and allies. It should be noted that the secondary interests are interests that do not harm the security and power of these two.
The result of the study shows that the interference of Iran and Turkey's role in the Syrian crisis,bring them into conflict patterns because each country sees another role as an obstacle to its role and try to reduce or even prevent another role. so, this effort and competition leads their raltions to conflict and the more these efforts, the greater these conflicts.
 
 Analysis
In the Syrian crisis, what has caused Iran-Turkey rivalry and what exacerbates this competition is the efforts of the two countries to play their intended role. according to this, given the importance of Syria, Iran and Turkey have drawn their goals based on this importance. victory in the Syrian crisis for Iran is very important for some reason, including maintaining strategic position and increasng regional influence, maintaining strength of resistance, confronting the hostilities of neighboring Arab countries, especially Saudi Arabia, confronting ISIL and Takfiri groups and etc and in order to achieve these goals, iran needs to maintain Assad as its strategic partner. for this reason, Iran plays a protective role in Syria seeking to preserve the rule of Assad. on the other hand, success in the Syrian crisis is important for Turkey and this includes the regional containment of Iran, the presentation of the pattern of the Brotherhood order against the resistance axis pattern, preventing kurds Incitement and their separatist demands. given that Turkey considers Assad as an obstacle to achieving these goals, it seeks to change the rule of Assad and replace it with a puppet's Sunni government. accordingly, Turkey's role in the Syrian crisis is a revisionist role, which is in contrast to Iran. and each country, while trying to play its role, seeks to prevent the role of the other side. in the Syrian crisis, the rivalry between the two countries over the balance of role and the zero sum game within the scope of roles.
 
Conclusion
The results of this research showed that Iran decided to help sustain the rule of the Bashar al-Assad regime as its sole strategic ally in the Middle East. And Turkey want to deposit the rule of the Bashar al-Assad regime and replace by another state. So that with two antithetical roles, the pattern of behavior leads to conflict and competition. Indeed, the interference of their role leads to competition.
 
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Iran
  • Turkey
  • Rivalry
  • Role
  • Power
  • interest
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