تحول در ساختار ژئوپلیتیک جهانی و بازدارندگی نیابتی و یک‌جانبه ایالات‌متحده (با محوریت عربستان سعودی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روابط بین الملل دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 گروه روابط بین الملل. دانشگاه تهران. تهران. ایران.

3 استادیار روابط بین الملل دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

پیش از جنگ سرد؛ ساختار امپریالیستی جوامع غربی تلاش گسترده‌ای برای تسلط سرزمینی داشت که با وقوع جنگ‌های جهانی اول و دوم و سپس ورود به فضای دوقطبی دستخوش تغییر شد. در خلال جنگ سرد تقسیم‌بندی‌های ژئوپلیتیکی میان دو ابرقدرت زمینه را برای شکل‌گیری نظریه­های سد نفوذ، بازدارندگی و دومینوهای جهانی آماده ساخت. در ادامه، فروپاشی شوروی نقطه عطفی بود که تداوم تغییر در ساختار ژئوپلیتیکی را نشان می‌داد. در فضای جدید، غرب آسیا به‌عنوان کمربند انتقالی ژئواستراتژیک شرقی به غربی اهمیت دوچندان یافت. گذشته از این؛ تغییر دسته‌بندی بازیگران نیز، دو کشور قدرتمند منطقه‌ای ایران و عربستان سعودی را رودرروی یکدیگر قرار داد که درنتیجه، سیاست خارجی این دو به سمت بازدارندگی سوق داده شد. در این میان با ورود ایالات‌متحده و اعمال بازدارندگی یک‌جانبه گسترده به حمایت از عربستان، توازن در قدرت و نفوذ منطقه­ای در حال تغییر است؛ بنابراین، سؤال محوری پژوهش این است که تحول در ساختار ژئوپلیتیک جهانی چگونه مسئله بازدارندگی آمریکا در غرب آسیا و حمایت از عربستان سعودی را به دنبال داشته است؟ یافته‌های تحقیق مؤید این است که ایالات‌متحده با بهره‌گیری از نظریه بازدارندگی یک‌جانبه گسترده برای جلوگیری از توسعه نفوذ منطقه‌ای ایران بازدارندگی نیابتی را علیه جمهوری اسلامی ایران بکار گرفته است. درنتیجه، ضمن افزایش فشار ساختاری بر ایران به تقویت متحد منطقه­ای خود عربستان سعودی و پوشش نارسایی‌های ژئوپلیتیک این کشور و تسلیح نظامی فراگیر و نیز مهم‌تر از همه، همکاری راهبردی با این کشور روی آورده است. هدف از این پژوهش نشان دادن مسئله بازدارندگی نیابتی آمریکا در غرب آسیا در قالب حمایت از عربستان سعودی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The evolution of the global geopolitical structure and the unilateral deterrence of the United States (centered on Saudi Arabia)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad mohseni 1
  • Farhad Ghasemi 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Jamshidi 3
  • Ahmad Soltaninejad 3
1 Ph.D. Student of International Relations, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 International Relations, Tehran University, Tehran Iran
3 Assistant Professor of International Relations, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

ExtendedAbstract      
Introduction
The global geopolitical structure has been affected by various changes, the process of this change, especially after World War II, has undergone various stages that have been persistent. One of the most important dimensions of the transformation of the geopolitical structure of the world has been its influence on regions and poles, especially in West Asia, where, in particular, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the domination of the United States, regional power distribution also changed, and two regional poles Iran and Saudi Arabia confronted each other with two actors on the agenda due to the fear of widespread war and its consequences. Meanwhile, the United States, as an actor in line with Saudi Arabia, tried to compensate Saudi Arabia for deterrence against Iran, thus pursuing unilateral deterrence.
Methodology
This research is based on the collection of library and documentary data and is attempting, based on the multivariate correlation research method, to link the variables "change in global geopolitical structure", "change in regional levels" and "deterrence from the United States" in the form Analytical and based on the conceptual framework of geopolitical relationship and deterrence.
Findings
The research findings can be summarized as follows:
1. Geopolitical interaction and deterrence
The transformation of the global geopolitical structure has made the regions once more recognized as the focal points of the crisis. Accordingly, West Asia has also been seen as an area of interest to transnational actors, especially the United States.
 
 2. Evolution in global geopolitical structure and polarization
The expansion of the global scale to regional levels has led to new polarization and opposition between the Islamic Republic and Saudi Arabia. Meanwhile, the United States has worked as the most important transnational player to maintain its regional interests through Saudi Arabia.
 
3. Security link between Saudi Arabia and the United States
With the coming of the Islamic Republic in the region, a new dimension of strategic partnership between the United States and Saudi Arabia was formed, which included supporting the Saudi government to provide regional security. Accordingly, the new threat against Saudi Arabia and the inappropriate relations of Iran with the United States led to a US desire to deter Iran.
 
4. Saudi failures to confront Iran and US support
The two major milestones, including the US invasion of Iraq and the 2011 developments, led to a regional equilibrium shift to Iran's advantage, so that Saudi Arabia alone could not be opposed to Iran. Therefore, the United States sought to compensate Saudi Arabia for its shortcomings. Different ways. The United States has increased the pressure on Iran to compensate for Saudi Arabia's geopolitical deficiencies, the creation of structural constraints against Iran, the protection and enhancement of Saudi Arabia's arsenal and military action, and the new strategic partnership and linkage, thereby preventing a regional equilibrium shift to Iran's benefit.
 
Analysis
The path of transformation in the global geopolitical structure has been a vertical path that initially affected the macro level of power, then regional levels, and ultimately the relations between the Islamic Republic and Saudi Arabia. In this regard, the fear of a rival war and the inability to win the Iran-Saudi war has led to deterrence. With the United States entering this relationship and supporting Saudi Arabia, the atmosphere of regional power has fluctuated. In this regard, although the time periods after 2011 were regional conditions for the benefit of Iran, but with the arrival of the Trump government, the balance was shifting to Saudi gain.
 
Conclusion
The takeover of the new US administration has led Saudi Arabia to repair its relations with the country. The withdrawal of the Trump government from the nuclear deal with Iran has also changed the context for rebalancing Saudi Arabia's profits to the detriment of Iran, especially since the Trump government has tried to force other global actors to exert pressure on Iran, Unlike Obama, the Trump term is that the regional balance of power is changing for Saudi Arabia.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Global geopolitical structure
  • unilateral deterrence
  • the United States
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
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