مطالعه‌ی برهمکنش قلمرو حکومت و اندیشه سیاسی در اوایل دوره ساسانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار باستانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 دانشجوی دکتری باستان شناسی تاریخی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 استادیار گروه باستان شناسی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

جغرافیای سیاسی در هر دوره ی زمانی از عوامل مؤثر بر نوع حکمرانی بوده است. امپراطوری ساسانی منطبق با وضعیت جغرافیای سیاسی و ژئوپلیتک ، نوعی از اندیشه‌ی سیاسی را ارائه داده است که از رهگذر آن منافع امپراطوری عظیم ساسانی تأمین می‌شده است. پژوهش حاضر به دنبال پاسخگویی به این سئوال است که؛ ساسانیان چگونه و بر پایۀ چه مولفه‌هایی فضای جغرافیایی فلات ایران را سازماندهی کرده اند؟ و نوع سازمان‌دهی فضای جغرافیایی آنها چه تأثیری بر اندیشه سیاسی آن‌ها داشته است؟ به لحاظ روش‌شناسی داده‌های این پژوهش، با روش کتابخانه‌ای گردآوری شده و اطلاعات با روش تحلیلی تفسیر شده‌ است. نتایج تحلیل ها نشان می‌دهد، در دوره اردشیر اوّل، جغرافیای فلات ایران به یکپارچگی دست نیافته و بسیار آشفته بوده است، بنابراین نمی‌توان از تمرکز‌گرایی در این دوره سخن گفت. با توسعه قلمرو در دوره شاپور اوّل، حوزۀ جغرافیایی براساس سه لایه جغرافیایی، شامل: مناطق همگرا و واگرا (ایران-شهر) و مناطق خارج سه لایه جغرافیایی ایران یعنی انیران تقسیم‌بندی شده و اندیشه سیاسی تسامح‌گرایانه بوده است. از سال273میلادی با از دست رفتن مناطقی از حوزه‌ی جغرافیایی ایران، نهاد سیاسی بر اساس اندیشۀ ‌ملّی‌گرایانه بر پایۀ دین زرتشتی شکل یافته و هژمونی بدست آمده در دوره اردشیر اول و شاپور اول با سرکوبی سایر ادیان که نقش برجسته‌ایی در مسائل ژئوپلیتیک منطقه بازی می کردند، با افول سیاسی مواجه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of the Interaction between the Realm of Government and Political Thought in the Early Sassanid Period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behrouz Afkhami 1
  • Zeynab Khosravi 2
  • karim Hajizadeh 3
1 Daneshgah Street, 56199-11367, Ardabil , Iran
2 PhD candidate in historical archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
3 Assistant professor, Department of archaeology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

The Sassanid empire has provided political thought, according to the geopolitical and geopolitical status, which its interests were gained. In the present study the raised issues are that how and on what basis did the Sassanid Imperial organize politic geography of Iran plateau from 224 AD to 420 AD? And what was the effect of this space organization on their political thought? It is assumed that Sassanid Kings, after attaining to hegemony in different regions, divided geography of space according to Iran geographical diversity and its geopolitical situation compared to surrounding areas, and provided necessary political thought in order to maintain this political space and influence in different regions. In terms of the methodology, bibliographical method was used for data collecting, and the method of data analysis was content analysis and historical. The resultant data shows that the course of the geography of Iran plateau was not integrate in the first Ardeshir period and was very disorganized, so it can't be said that there was a concentrating in this period. With the development of the territory in the course of the first Shapoor, the geographic scope was split based on the three geographic layer, included divergent and convergent zones included (Iranshahr) and areas outside of Iran three geographic layers, namely Aniran, and the concept of negligible political thought was presented. From 273 AD, with the loss of areas of Iranian geographical scope, the hegemony of previous Kings became also fruitless.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Political Geography
  • Sassanid Imperial
  • Political Thought
  • nationalism
  • Geopolitic
  1. Abool- Alhassani, Seyedrahim (2009), Determination and Measurement of National Identity Components in Iran. Tehran: Markaze tahghighat esterategi Publication [in Persian]. ##
  2. Ahmadipour, Zahra, Ghasem Ghanbari, Ghasem Karami (2011), Political organization of space. Tehran: Armed Forces Geographical Organizatin Publicatin[in Persian]. ##
  3. Alram, Michael (2008), Early Sasanian coinage. The Sasanian Era. The Idea of Iran, Vol, III (eds) Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Sarah Stewart. London: British Museum. ##
  4. Azami, Hadi (2015), Modeling of Syndrome of Ethnic Convergence and Divergence Policies in Iran. Geopolitics Quarterly. Vol 11. No 1. Pp 71-100 [in Persian]. ##
  5.  Back, Michael (1978), Textes et Mémoires. Vol VIII. Die Sassanidischen Staatsinschriften. Acta Iranica 18. ##
  6. Beavar, A. D. H (2013), History of Cambridge. Vol 3. Sectin 2: From Seleucia to the collapse of the Sasanian government: Political, social and administrative institutions, taxes and commerce. Translated by: Hassan Anosheh. Tehran: Amirkabir Publication [in Persian]. ##
  7. Christensen, A.M (2006), Iran during the Sassanid era. Translated by: Rashid Yasami. Tehran: Sedaye Moaser Publication [in Persian]. ##
  8. Daryaee, T (2008), Kingship in Farly Sasanian Iran. The Sasanian Era The Idea of Iran Vol, III (ed) vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Sarah stewart. London: British. ##
  9. Derakhshi, Hassan (2002), Investigation and adaptation of Parthian period architecture. Case study: Ghaleh Zahak. Thesis of Archeaology. Tehran: University of Teacher Training [in Persian]. ##

10. Diakonov, M.M (2014), Ancient Iran history. Translated by: Roohi Arbab. Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi Publication [in Persian]. ##

  1. 11.  Farajirad, R.F, Ghorbaninejhad, F, Mehraban (2018), Impact of Globalization on Convergence Enhancement in Cultural Territory of Nowruz. Geopolitics Quarterly. Vol.13. No 2. Serial (46) Pp 93-120  [in Persian]. ##
  2. 12.  Farokhy, Foruzan (2014), The concept of Iranshahr during the Sassanid era. Journal of Study History. Year 16, Issue 58. 368-379 [in Persian]. ## 
  3. 13.  Frye, Richard (2010), History of Cambridge. Vol 3. (Bakhsh1). Political History of Iran in the Sassanid Period. Prin 6. Translated by: Hassan Anosheh. Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication [in Persian]. ##
  4. 14.  Galaher, Carolin, Card Dahlman, Marie Gilmartin, Alcien Montes, Peter Sherlo (2011), Key Concepts in Political Geography. Translated by: Mohamad Hassan Nami and Ali Mohamadpoor. Tehran: Zeyton sabz Publication [in Persian]. ##
  5. 15.  Ghirshman, Roman (2011), Iranian art during the Sassanid and Parthian periods. Translated by: Bahram Farahvashi. Tehran: Elmi and Farhangi Publication [in Persian]. ##
  6. 16.  Gignoux, Ph (1991), Les Quatre inscription du Mage kirdīr. Paris. ##
  7. 17.  Glassner, M. (1992). Political Geography, New York. Wily Sons.  ## 
  8. 18.  Hafeznia, Mohamadreza (2005), Study of the geopolitical and geopolitical situation in Iran. Journal of Political science. Vol  8, No 30,117124 [in Persian]. ##
  9. 19.  Hafeznia, Mohamadreza (2012), Political Geography of Iran. Tehran: SAMT Publication [in Perian]. ##
  10. 20.  Herman, Georgina (2008), The revival of art and civilization in ancient Iran. Translated by: Mehrdad Vahdati, Tehran: Center of University publication [in Persian]. ##
  11. 21.  Hossein Talaei and Jerfi, Mostafa (2010), Examining the Indicators Affecting Ardeshir Bābakan's Frontier Policies towards the Roman Empire. Journal of History of Islam and Iran.  Year 20, Nom7. Succesive 87, 67-87 [in Persian]. ##
  12. 22.  Imanpoor, Mohamadtaghi & Najmo-Aldin Gilani (2010), The role of the ancient tribes in the ups and downs of the Iranian dynasties in the Ancient period. Journal of Historical research. Year 2, Issue 3, Successive7, 41-57. [in Persian]. ##
  13. 23.  Keall, J (1977), Qal’eh-I Yazdigird: The question of Its date. Iranica Antiqua, vol 15: PP. 1- 12. ##
  14. 24.  Keall,E. J (1971), Parttho-Sassanian Archaeology, A New Phase. Expedition, vol. 13, p. 55-61. ##
  15. 25.  Kent, R.G (1953), Old Persian (Gerammar, Texts, Lexicon). New Haven. ##
  16. 26.  Khoravi, Zeynab (2014a), The historic period of Iran ’s political thought evolution on the strength of archeology data. Thesis of Archeaology. Mohaghegh Ardabili University [in Persian]. ##
  17. 27.  Khoravi, Zeynab (2014b), The study of the concept of power from the outstanding role of Akrami to the role of antiquities in ancient Iran. Second international conference of Iran and Iraq. Vol 23. Trying to Sadegh Hoseyni Ashkori. Prepared: Secretariat of the first international conference of Iran-Iraq Heritage.171-195 [in Persian]. ##
  18. 28.  Labaf Khanaki, Meysam (2012), Introduction to Administrative Geography in Sassanid Period. Journal of Pazh. Issue10.116-131 [in Persian]. ##
  19. 29.  Laura, Pascal, François Thaul (2002). Geopolitical keys. Translated by: Hassan Sadugh Vanini. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University [in Persian]. ##
  20. 30.  Mochiri, I.I (1996), History of civilizations of Central Asia. The crosswords of civilizations: A. D. 250 to 750 vol, III. (ed). B. A. Litvinsky. Pars: united Nations Educatione, Scientific and cultural organization. ##
  21. 31.  Mojtahedzadeh, Pirouz (2013), The emergence of national identity and the evolution of the state of the state. Journal of Human Geography Research, Issue 45. Nom 2. 121-138 [in Persian]. ##
  22. 32.  Mousavi, A (2008), A survey of the Archaeology of the Sasanian Period during the past three decades. e-Sasnika Archoeology 1: PP.1- 18. ##
  23. 33.  Musavi, Mirtayeb (2004), Army and politics in terms of action. Tehran: Mardomsalar Publication [in Persian]. ##
  24. 34.  Nosrati, Hamidreza and Javad Kavianirad (2014), Explaining the functions of the district inquiry into the integrated state. Geopolitics Q    uarterly. Vol 10, No 3. 149-175 [in Persian]. ##
  25. 35.  Rajayee, Farhang (1994), The Transformation of Political Thought in the Ancient East. Tehran: Ghomes Publication [in Persian]. ##
  26. 36.  Rezayeeniya, Abbas (2008), Reflections of the art of politics and religion in the rocky relifs of the Partian and Sassanid era. Journal National studies. Vol 9. No 4: 21-44 [in Persian]. ## 
  27. 37.  Shokuyei, Hossein (1999), New Thoughts in Geography Philosophy. Vol 1. Tehran: Gitashenasy Publication [in Persian]. ##
  28. 38.  Soleymani, Alireza and Azam-Alsadat Seyedmusavi (2015), National security from the point of view of geopolitics. Journal of  Grow geography education. Issue 30, Nom1, 35-39 [in Persian]. ##
  29. 39.  Vasegh. Mahmood, Marjan Badiyi Azandahi, Lotfollah Nawavi, Ahad Mohammadi (2018), A Reflection on the Subject of Geography. Journal of Geopolitics. Year14. Issue1. Pp 176-221. Serial(49) [ in Persian]. ##
  30. 40.  Widengren, Geo (2008), Manny and his teachings. Translated by: Nozhat Safay Esfahani. Tehran. Markaz Publication [in Persian]. ##
  31. 41.  Wilkinson, T.J (2003), Archaeology Landscapes of Near East. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. ##
  32. 42.  Zarrinkoob, Abd-­Alhossein (2002), History of the people of Iran. Vol1, Iran before Islam, Struggle with the powers.Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication [in Persian]. ##
  33. 43.  Zendehdel, Hassan (1998), Fars province.Tehran: Irangard Publication [in Persian]. ##

 Zomorodiyan, Mohamadjafar (2013), Geomorphology of Iran. Climate processes and external dynamics Vol 2, The editor: Frajoalah Mahmodi, Mashhad: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications [in Persian].##