نقد معرفت شناختی دیدگاه دانش/ قدرت در جغرافیای سیاسی و ژیوپلیتیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

نسبت دانش(جغرافیا) با ارزش(قدرت) یکی از بحث­های مهمّ فلسۀ علم می­باشد، در این زمینه به عقیدۀ غالب فیلسوفان علوم اجتماعی، از دیدگاه منطقی، هیچ­گونه ارتباط تولیدی میان گزاره­های مربوط به پدیدارهای عینی و حقیقی(هست­ها) با گزاره­ها و قضایای ارزشی و اعتباری(بایدها) وجود ندارد و واقعیّت­ها دربردارندۀ عناصر ارزشی نیستند و در ذات خود فارغ از تعلّقات افراد می­باشند امّا در عین حال، دانش و عینیّت در محیط بیرونی و در عمل، نسبتی وثیق با ارزش­ها و تعلّقات دارند. در مقابل عدّه­ای از جمله اصحاب مکاتب انتقادی معتقدند که میان معرفت و ارزش­های انسان چنان آمیختگی و وابستگی وجود دارد که اساساً وجود دانشِ عینیِ فارغ از تعلّقات، ناممکن است. در این راستا کسانی همچون ویتفوگل و اُتوا جغرافیا و ژئوپلیتیک را مجموعه­ای از «دانش/ قدرت» و ایدئولوژی طبقۀ بورژوا و بلکه جغرافیا را تولیدِ قدرت می­دانند. در این مقاله با آوردن گزاره­های متعدّدی از جغرافیای انسانی و طبیعی نشان داده شد که هستی­شناسی، معرفت­شناسی و روش­شناسی علم جغرافیا فارغ از ارزش­ها می­باشد امّا در مرحلۀ کاربرد، این علم می­تواند در خدمت قدرت­ها و ایدئولوژی­ها قرار بگیرد. بنابراین، مدّعای اندیشمندان مکاتب انتقادی مبنی بر مسبوقیّت دانش به ارزش­ها ناشی از خلط میان «نظر و عمل» یا «معنا و کاربرد» است و ایشان با خلط میان «معنای دانش با کاربرد دانش» این دو امر را یکی انگاشته و از این رو معتقدند که دانش و معرفت در ذات خود با اهداف عملی و کاربردی آمیخته و اساساً دانشِ بی­طرف و غیرمسبوق به اهداف و جهت­گیری­هایِ کاربردی و ارزشی وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Epistemological Criticism of the View of Power/ Knowledge in Political geography and Geopolitics

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahmood vasegh 1
  • ahad mohamadi 2
1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Geography, university of Tehran
2 Political Geography Department of University of tehran
چکیده [English]

The ratio of knowledge and value is one of the most important discussions in Philosophy of Science. In this regard, according to the opinion of most of philosophers social sciences, from a rational point of view, there is no productive relation between propositions related to objective and real phenomena with value and credit propositions and the realities do not contain elements of value and in their essence they are independent of the goals individual, but at the same time, knowledge and objectivity in the external environment and in practice, have a relationship with values and interests. In contrast, followers of critical school believe that a relationship is found between knowledge with interests human so that essentially the existence of objective knowledge is impossible regardless of interests. In this regard, those like Wittfogel and O’Tuathail considered geography and geopolitics as a collection of "knowledge/power" and the ideology of the bourgeois class as well as geography as power generation. In this paper, by presenting various propositions of human and physical geography we showed that ontology, epistemology and methodology of geography are value-free, but at the stage of practice and application, geography can serve the powers and ideologies. Therefore, the claim thinkers of critical schools based on considering knowledge prior to values and interests is due to the mix of "theory and practice" or "meaning and application". And they consider these two as one and therefore believe that knowledge is essentially interwoven with practical and applied goals, and There is no value-free knowledge.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Knowledge
  • Value
  • Political Geography
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