تبیین بسترهای سیاسی – فضایی نقش آفرینی ژئوپلیتیکی کربلا به عنوان کانون ایدئولوژیک شیعه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر مرکز جغرافیا و سنجش از دور دانشگاه جامع امام حسین(ع)

2 گروه آموزشی جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

نقش مذهب در مطالعات جدید ژئوپلیتیک و در قالب مباحث ژئوکالچر جایگاه ویژه ای پیدا کرده است. هر مذهب دارای مکانهای مقدسی است که غالب آنها دارای کارکرد مذهبی هستند و در برخی از مذاهب که کارکرد ایدئولوژیک نیز داراند، یک مکان مقدس می تواند نقش کانون ایدئولوژیک را نیز ایفا کند. تشیع یکی از شاخص ترین مذاهبی است که کارکردهای ایدئولوژیک آن قابل تشخیص بوده و در بین مکانهای مقدس متعدد آن، کربلا به واسطه واقعه عاشورا نقش کانون ایدئولوژیک آن را بر عهده دارد. کربلا در طول تاریخ به واسطه سرشت سیاسی – مذهبی خود نقش آفرینی های ژئوپلیتیکی داشته که این مقاله با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی و با اتکاء به مطالعات کتابخانه ای و مقایسه یافته های علمی - پژوهشی و همچنین بهره گیری از نتایج مصاحبه های تفصیلی و عمیق با صاحب نظران، در پی پاسخ دادن به این سوال است که بسترهای سیاسی – فضایی نقش آفرینی ژئوپلیتیکی کربلا در طول تاریخ به عنوان کانون ایدئولوژیک شیعه کدام است؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explaining the political-spatial context of the geopolitical role of Karbala as the ideological center of Shi'a

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Mollahosseini Ardakani 1
  • Afshin Mottaghi 2
  • Yadollah Karimipur 3
1 Imam Hosseini Comperhansive University
2 Department Of Political Geography, Faculty Of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor of Political Geography at Kharazmi University
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
 
Introduction
Religion and its function in geopolitical adversarial has a significant place in the new mainstream of geopolitics studies and particularly in the geo-culture debates. Any religion has its own sacred place which has a religious function. In the religions that have an ideological function, a sacred place can act as an ideological core. Shia’ is one of the significant religious that have remarkable ideological function and Karbala due to the event of Ashura act as a core among its numerous sacred places. 
 
Methodology
This paper with descriptive-analytic method and based on the library studies and with comparison of scientific-researches findings and also by using profound and expand interviews with the experts has tried to answer the question that “what are the political-spatial sittings of Karbala geopolitical functions during the history as Shia’ ideological core?”
 
Findings
Although Karbala is a sacred place with religious attitude, but it has an essential political functions due to its strong political-social setting. In this regard, Karbala has acted as a political event and phenomena alongside its common religious functions during the history. In points of Shiite view, Karbala is not an absurd historical event, but it has a significant place as same as divine things. Therefore, Karbala and its historical narrations have an important role in identification of Shia’ and it has mainly divided Shia’ with the others. The main point is that this political function derived from Karbala have not limited to its geographical specific surroundings, but the political and ideological burden of Karbala has reproduced in different spaces and times. In other words, distribution of Karbala ideological narration has infra geographical and historical features. To this point, the concept of “every day is Ashura and everywhere is Karbala” is an all-time live phenomenon.
 
Conclusion
To response to the question of the research, we have recognized seven political-spatial settings that caused Karbala have geopolitical functions. In addition, we showed that
 

Core and subjective of conflicts between Shia’ and Sunni
Political functions in the requiems
An aspiration for Shiite movements
Legitimization of Shiite governments
Motivation for Shia’ territoriality and territorialization
Pattern of resistance geopolitics for Shia’
Power exhibition and geopolitical prestige for Shia’

 
In fact, Karbala as a sacred place and with political-religious role and also as a core of Shia’ ideology is able to act as a geopolitical fact and based on these political-spatial settings, Karbala is an issue of competition among the powers. In fact, Karbala as an actor and player was able to affect and implement in geopolitics point of view.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Karbala
  • Geopolitical Functioning
  • Ideological Core
  • Shia’
  • Political-Spatial Settings
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