مولفه ها و پیامدهای ژئوپلیتیکی سیاست خارجی ترامپ علیه جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار مطالعات منطقه ای، وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد مطالعات منطقه ای، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

دونالد ترامپ، از زمان تبلیغات انتخاباتی، از ایران به عنوان یکی از تهدیدات اصلی پیش روی آمریکا نام برده و پس از رسیدن به قدرت، مقابله با جمهوری اسلامی را به عنوان اصل محوری سیاست خارجی خاورمیانه­ای خود قرار داد. نقطه ورود ترامپ به پرونده ایران، بحث توافق هسته­ای بوده و از آن توافق به «توافق بد» یاد می­کرد. برهمین اساس، پس از رسیدن به قدرت، ترامپ در ابتدا خواستار مذاکره مجدد در مورد توافق هسته­ای شد بگونه ای که نفوذ منطقه ای و برنامه موشکی جمهوری اسلامی ایران را نیز جدای از مسائل هسته ای در بر بگیرد. در نهایت نیز پس از ناکامی در دستیابی به خواسته اصلاح توافق هسته­ای به طور یک­جانبه از توافق خارج شده و تقابل با ایران در سه حوزه «هسته­ای»، «نفوذ منطقه­ای» و «برنامه موشکی» را در پیش گرفت. فرضیه پژوهش حاضر این است که رویکرد تقابلی ترامپ با ج.ا.ایران، مبتنی بر تقابل ژئوپلیتیکی بوده و آنچه آمریکا به دنبال آن است محدود کردن ایران مبتنی بر مفاهیم قدرت و فضاست. چارچوب نظری پژوهش، مفاهیم ژئوپلیتیکی قدرت و روابط فضایی و روش پژوهش نیز تحلیلی- تبیینی مبتنی بر مطالعات کتابخانه­ای و اسنادی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical Elements and Components of Trump Foreign Policy against Islamic Republic of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Saeed Karami 1
  • Seyyed Abdul Azim Mousavi 2
1 Assistant Professor of Political Geography Regional Studies, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology,Tehran, iran
2 MA in Regional Studies, Middle East and North African Studies, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

ExtendedAbstract      
Introduction
When elected as the president, Donald Trump started opposing against I.R. Iran, meaning the Deal as a "disaster”, "the worst Deal ever” and so "terrible" that could lead to "a nuclear holocaust". Trump administration after failure in reforming the Deal, unilaterally withdrew from the so-called Deal. After withdrawal, the opposition of the America exceeded the Nuke area into the regional influence and missile capabilities of Iran. This caused to some kinds of opposing challenges bringing up geopolitical elements and consequences.
 
Methodology
In this study, for proving the hypotheses, we use the specification-analytical method. The research data gathered through library studies and documents, surveying articles, strategic documents, journals and US research centers outputs, and also analyzing speeches and oppositions.
 
Findings:
The findings of this study are discussed under the following themes:
US Middle East Politics at Donald Trump Administration:
In this chapter we try to answer some questions: What are the relations between Trump Middle East and his entire foreign policy? What are the priorities or Middle East important subjects which Trump has been engaged or has taken special approaches or positions on? What are the expectations of Middle East countries from US in Trump administration? Since Trump presidential campaign announced his goal as “prioritize” to America in any program and politics, based on this, Deal with main foreign policy crises.  
So he faced with three important challenges: first: Iran Deal,(firstly nuke deal): second: Fighting ISIS: third: Arab-Israel, Iran-Israel conflicts and Arab countries were third side of his pyramid in Middle East opposition. Arab countries firstly counted Trump comings days as “not confident” situation. Israel got more accompanying with Trump and gradually Iran changed to his main Middle East challenge.
 
Iran and Donald Trump Foreign Policy:
Iran situation within Trump Middle East policies defined around the following thematic titles: assuming Iran as a critical threat for the US: Introducing Iran as backing terrorism: Introducing Iran as a threat in destabilizing the region and the security of alliances.
 
Trump’s Strategy in opposing Iran:
 the reasonability ofTrump and his administration are on the base of three mega cases:  “nuclear activity”, “missile program”, and “supporting regional alliances” which could be as costing cases for Islamic Republic of Iran where economic pressure get raised, Iran would not be able to provide the fund for running forward and executing of the above cases. For getting a coalition, the securitizing the above three cases got pursued
.
Geopolitical Elements of US opposing policies against Iran in Trump Administration:
Limiting the influence and regional role of Iran through fighting Iran’s representing groups, combating Iran influence in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Yemen, and making coalition against Iran, is geopolitical elements of US opposing policies against Iran in Trump administration.
 
Geopolitical goals of Trump opposing policies against Iran:
Opposing with Iran in Trump administration has some consequences like increasing Arab countries security dependent to US, accompanying with Israel avarice program and trying to limit Iran in its geopolitical environment.
 
Analysis
Iran’s goals and policies in Middle East and global systems are in conflict with the permanent goals of US. Iran’s also has some sorts of features and behaviors which show Iran’s efforts in getting empowered on the base of main geopolitical concepts: Power and Space. These characteristics are shown obviously in its national power element: like regional influence, local missile technology and nuclear enrichment program. Regarding US hegemonic policies and Iran anti-hegemonic policies, frequently interests and policies of two countries in main domain and cases are in opposition with each other.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Key words: Iran Regional Role
  • Iran nuclear Deal
  • Donald Trump
  • Geopolitic
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