Geopolitical Analysis of the Relationship between Social Capital and the Level of People's Expectations from the Authorities (Case study of Tehran)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor, Public Policy, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.A in Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Educational Sciences, University of Qom, Qom, Iran


Extended Abstract    
Due to the importance of the capital in the element of political structure of space with its function and political-administrative identity, its developments have an irreplaceable role in the geopolitics of the country and the region. Currently, social capital has become one of the most important and widely used concepts in the field of social studies. Recent economic and sociological research shows that social capital also affects key economic, political, and social variables. The present study examines the relationship between social capital and the level of people's expectations of the authorities. This research is based on Putnam's theory of social capital and the Nina research model. The main issue that we seek to investigate in this study is “what effect the increase in people's expectations of the authorities has on their social capital”. The main hypothesis that we are trying to test in this research is that in the city of Tehran, the more people expect from the authorities, the lower the social capital and their trust in the authorities, which is the most important part of social capital.
The statistical population of the research in the present report includes all citizens over 20 years of age who have been selected through random sampling with size-appropriate classification. The statistical population of the study consists of all people over 20 years old living in Tehran, the sample size is estimated 384 people based on Cochran's formula.
In this study, we seek to examine the relationship between social capital and the level of people's expectations of the authorities. Increasing expectations will have negative consequences for the country if it is not accompanied by an increase in efficiency or is faster than efficiency. Also, the choice of Tehran as a statistical community is due to the importance and impact that the capital of a country could have.
Definitions in the field of social capital are many and varied, while thinkers such as Bourdieu and Coleman focus their approaches on social capital at the level of individuals and families, Putnam examines this concept as a large-scale asset. Bourdieu, for example, emphasizes that social capital is a set of potential or actual resources linked to sustainable network ownership and assets with more or less institutionalized relationships of mutual and mutual acquaintances and awareness. In other words, social capital is formed from social obligations and relationships between members of a group. In the present study, the theoretical framework was selected based on the theories of Putnam and Joseph Nye, which is discussed in detail in the main text of the report. Increasing expectations will have negative consequences for the country if it is not accompanied by an increase in efficiency or is faster than efficiency. This effect is so significant that Alexei Dotokuil points to the rise in expectations of the French Revolution, arguing that the rise in expectations of the French people, although accompanied by a relative increase in welfare, was due to the fact that it was faster than the growth of welfare in society. It led to a revolution in the country. The unreasonable increase of expectations in the society has very bad consequences to the extent that it can question the legitimacy of the system and undermine the people's trust in the authorities. If such a thing happens, even the positive actions of the authorities will not be seen by the people, and other crises will be created, especially the crisis of legitimacy in the society. Expectations are also more concerned with the psychological and mental dimension of human beings, which has a direct effect on it and then can have indirect and practical consequences in society.


  1. Abdul Baqi,A.M; Dalawi,M; Ebrahimi,A.Q (2007). Development of social capital in the shadow of trust, Social Capital Conference.[In Persian]
  2. Ahmadi, L (2004). Social capital and its evaluation indicators, Master's degree, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran.[In Persian]       
  3. Ahmadi, M, Shapoorabadi, A (2007). Investigating social capital in Iran and its role and position in the country's development process, Social Capital Conference.[In Persian]
  4. Ahmadipour, Z; valigholizadeh, A (2009). Study and analysis of the main factors of relocation of capitals with emphasis on the choice of Ankara as the capital of Turkey. Geography, New Era, Seventh Year, No. 22.[In Persian]
  5. Akbari, A (2004). The Role of Social Capital on Participation:Investigating the effect of social capital on socio-political participation(Case study of Farsing village of Songhar city functions), Master's degree, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran.[In Persian]
  6. Alvani, M, Shirvani, A (2006). Social capital(Concepts, theories and applications), Esfahan, Mani Publications.[In Persian]
  7. Babajani, A (2007). Promotion of social capital, the foundation of dynamic development of rural areas(Challenges and solutions), Social Capital Conference.[In Persian]
  8. Bourdieu, p. (1986). the forms of capital. “In handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education”, ed. JG Richardson, pp.241-58.n,New York: Greenwood.
  9. Cohen, D.; Prusak. L (2001). In Good Company: How Social Capital Make Organizations Work In.
  10. Coleman, J (1988). “social capital in the creation of human capital” American jouranal of sociology, 94 ( supplement): s95-s120.
  11. Coleman, J. S. (1990). "Foundations of Social Theory". Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  12. Emadi, A (2011). Investigating the relationship between the use of social networking sites and social capital(Case study: Students of Shahid Beheshti University), Master's degree, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University.[In Persian]
  13. Fukuyama, F (1942). The end of order, Translator: Ghulam Abbas Tavassoli, Tehran, The story of the new pen(2006) .[In Persian]
  14. Gar,T (1998). Why do Humans Rebel, Tehran, Research Institute for Strategic Studies.[In Persian]
  15. Golabi, F (2004). The role of social trust in development with emphasis on the performance and role of Islamic councils(Case study of East Azerbaijan), Masters Degree, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran.[In Persian]
  16. Imani jajarmi, H (2001). Social capital and urban management, Tehran: Journal of Urban Management, number 7.[In Persian]
  17. Jafari, R (2006). Investigating the Relationship between Social Capital and Political Participation among University Students in Tehran, Master's degree, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University.[In Persian]
  18. Khoshfar, G.R; Salehi, S (2007). Social capital and environmental behaviors in Iran, Case Study:Provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan, From the collection of articles of the Social Capital Conference.[In Persian]
  19. Mottaghi Dastnaei, A; Lotfi, H ; Sadeghi, M (2014). Dimensions of political geography, location and transfer of the capital in Iran. Quarterly Journal of Planning Logics, forth year, Issue 16.[In Persian]
  20. Nye, J.S; et al (2010). Decline of Soft Power (People, State  and Trust), Translate by Mirtorabi.S. Published by Imam Sadegh University Press, Tehran.[In Persian]
  21. Ounagh, N (2005). Investigating the relationship between social capital and quality of life(A case study of the city of Gonbad Kavous), Master's degree, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran.[In Persian]
  22. Putnam, R (2001). Making Democracy work(Italian experience and lessons for countries in transition), Tehran, Salam newspaper.[In Persian]
  23. Putnam, R. D. (1993). “the prosperous community – social capital and public life” the American prospective-13:35-42.
  24. Putnam, R.D (2000). Bowling Alone; The collapse and revival of American community, Simon and Schuster, New York.
  25. Putnam, R. D (2001). "Social capital: Measurement and consequences", Isuma vol.2.
  26. Rafipour, F (1994). Trust and anomie or social turmoil, Research on the potential of anomie in Tehran, Quoted from Afsaneh Kamali.[In Persian]
  27. Rajabzadeh, A (2003). Iranian cultural behaviors, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, Office of National Plans.[In Persian]
  28. Salehi, A (2010), Citizens' social capital and good urban governance(Case study: Paveh city), Master's degree, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran.[In Persian]
  29. Sharepour, M (2004). Social capital: Definitions, dimensions and consequences, Tehran.[In Persian]
  30. Shojaei Baghini, M.M (2008). Conceptual foundations of social capital, Tehran, Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies.[In Persian]
  31. Soleimani, M (2008). Measuring the effects of social capital on economic growth in the Islamic Republic of  Iran, Master's degree, Faculty of Economics, Imam Sadegh University.[In Persian]
  32. Soltani,T; Jamali, M (2007). Investigating the Relationship between Social Capital and Mental Health: Students of the Faculty of Social Sciences, Shiraz University, Presented at the Social Capital Conference.[In Persian]
  33. Tajbakhsh, K (2003). Investigating the role of social capital in the efficiency of local councils in Iran, Ministry of Interior, Fars Governorate, Office of Social Affairs and Councils.[In Persian]

Vilanova; Josa (2003). Department of Industrial Engineering and Management. Tamper University of Technology

Volume 17, Issue 63
July 2021
Pages 88-115
  • Receive Date: 16 September 2019
  • Revise Date: 02 August 2020
  • Accept Date: 11 August 2020
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2021