Document Type : Original Article
Associate Professor at the Department of Political Geography and a Faculty Member of the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Ph.D. Student Political Geography at the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Master of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Among the tools of ethnic political management of a political system, the media, through the images they present of ethnic groups and the representations they make of them, show how people view ethnic groups and how they are constructed. Community identities have had the greatest impact. Among these media, television is one of the first of these media. In the Islāmic Republic of Iran, different policies are applied to ethnicities; all studies in this area have often examined the government's ethnic policies by setting written criteria such as documents, reports, rules, and regulations. Given the governmental and governance nature of the media and the Islāmic Republic of Iran's Radio and Television is a tool to show government policies in various fields, it is possible to study and explain ethnic policies in Iran by analyzing the content of media programs. It addressed the policies pursued by the political system with the tools of the national media, with the aim of regulating the relations between the small groups of identity and national identity. The main issue in this study is to check the ethnic policies of the Islāmic Republic of Iran towards ethnicities and to understand the approaches of ethnic representation through the analysis of the content of popular films broadcast on television.
In this paper, the content analysis method is used to collect and analyze data. In the analysis of the content of TV films, the sample unit was popular films; the recording unit, ethnic themes, and symbols; Statistical analysis of ethnic policy items have also been provided separately to answer research questions as a unit of analysis in research counting units that are film sequences.
Result and Discussion
The research findings are analyzed in the form of 24 categories: first category: film genre, second category: film subject, third category: threat and humiliation of ethnic groups, fourth category: adherence of ethnic culture to the dominant culture, Fifth and sixth categories: repression and imprisonment of ethnic figures, seventh category: local language, eighth category: local language in the school environment or government offices, ninth category: school access to Persian language, Tenth category: social participation of ethnic groups, eleventh category: independent political organization, twelfth category: loyalty of ethnic groups to sovereignty, thirteenth category: ethnic disputes, fourteenth and fifteenth category: ethnic killing or expulsion and separation of ethnic groups from the land, sixteenth category: national unity, Seventeenth category: local protests, Eighteenth category: ethnic coöperation with local groups, nineteenth category: local clothing, twentieth category: Persians, twenty-first category: homogeneity of greatest and minority, twenty-second category: ethnic politics, twenty-third category: peaceful coexistence, last category : Which people? The findings show that the highest frequency is related to pluralism, but in the cultural dimension, not in the structural dimension. That is to say, attention to cultural differences such as customs, local dress, the local language, as well as peaceful living between subcultures, or local tribes and groups has been given more emphasis.
In popular Iranian national media films, the politics of pluralism in the cultural dimension are represented more often, And in the second priority, ethnic replication policies and some of its dialects have also had significant frequency in the sequences. Representation of the demands and demands (social, cultural, economic, and political) of the ethnic groups also shows that these structural and political demands of the ethnic groups have been completely ignored And there have been negative and passive reactions to them from the central government. Finally, there is a big difference between representing popular films in the national media and ethnic realities in society; Because if we consider the content and genre of films, a small number of films are based on a historical genre made by national media agents, and as a result, many of them have been shown with an unrealistic theme of the history of ethnic groups and ethnic groups.