The Importance of Geopolitical Codes in the Transnational Role of Metropolises: Emphasis on Iranian Metropolises

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Faculty member, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 M.Sc. Student, Political Geography, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Extended Abstract
Introduction
According to Castells and Taylor, the world was based on space of places until the early 1970s. In such a context, any international interaction of institutions within the state must be pursued through the government, and the government of each country considers itself responsible for its nation and territory. But today, many theorists of globalization and the global cities network have emphasized in numerous articles that in the context of the post-Fordist global economy, cities are collaborating and competing as nodes of networks and new actors in the international arena. From this perspective, they believe that these are global cities that will replace the nation-state in the future. Political geographers around the world, on the other hand, believe that cities not only will not replace the nation-state, but also the they will find new roles and functions in globalization. This paper based on a historical-analytical approach is surveying space of flows interactions according to the logic of geopolitical codes and tries to clarify and explains Iranian metropolises challenges and opportunities in this context.
 
Methodology
This research method descriptive-analysis with the method of data gathering is based upon library studies and the use of books, articles Seeks to investigate the interactions of space of flows based on the logic of geopolitical codes.
 
Results and Discussion
1. The concept of politics and its relation to geopolitical codes: Geopolitical codes, as a result of the political affairs of countries, determine the ways in which the sovereignty of a country must be maintained or its status and prosperity increased. In this sense, the concept of friend and foe is an important tool of politics in explaining the geopolitical codes of countries in the world system. In this regard, many world leaders, by expressing their geopolitical codes in line with our concept and another in the world of Post-Fordism, prevent the presence of many nodes in the global economy. The geopolitics codes of Iran are in conflict with the codes of the United States of America, which has global geopolitical codes, and thus has created a kind of “us “and “them” in the world system.
 
2. Diplomacy: City diplomacy has been formed in parallel with the level of government diplomacy between different countries of the world, and today many cities and metropolises around the world use these tools to achieve economic, cultural and social goals in line with their national interests.
 
Conclusions
This research emphasizes that the geopolitical codes of countries affect the activities of cities of a country at three levels on a transnational scale, and the cities of each country according to the geopolitical codes of the same country in these three local, regional and global levels can enter the transnational space and compete and interact with other cities. Iran, with its important features in the arena of world geopolitical rivalries and space of places, has not yet been able to enter into the space of flows and contemporary globalization. For example, with the expansion of the concept of "us" and "the other" as a tool of US politics as a defense mechanism in the global arena, it deals with potential threats in the form of a geopolitical code called the axis of evil. To be present in the world of cities and performance a role in the space of flows as an actor

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Castells, M. (2001). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture; Translated by: Ahmad Eghlian, Afshin Khakbaz; Tehran; New design publications.[In Persian]
  2. Cohen. S. B.(2003). Geopolitical of the World System :Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  3. Colin S. G; Geoffrey R. S.(1999). Geopolitics, Geography, and Strategy: ; Routledge Publishers.
  4. Flint, C.(2006). Interdiction in Geopolitics: Routledge Publishers: 2006.
  5. Harvey , D.(1990). The Conditions of Postmodernity: Blackwell Publishers:.
  6. Johnston, R. J.; Taylor, P. J.; Watts, M. (Eds.). (2004). Geographies of global change, Translated by: Nasrin Nouria; Tehran; High War Publications.[In Persian]
  7. Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Woods, M.; Whitehead, M.; Dixon, D.; Hannah, M. (2007). An introduction to political geography ;Translated by: Dr. Zahra Pishgahifard, Rasoul Akbari; Tehran; University of Tehran Publications. [In Persian]
  8.  Minca, C; Rory, R. (2015). On Schmitt and space. Routledge.
  9. Mojtahedzadeh, P (2013). Political Geography and Geographical Politics, Samt Publications. [In Persian]
  10. Mousavi Shafaei, M.(2007); Development-oriented foreign policy; Tehran; Strategic Research Center; Foreign Policy Research. [In Persian]
  11. Naji, S; Jayum, A.J (2011). The US Geopolitical Codes and Its Influences on the US-Iran Relations: The Case of George W. Bush's Presidency. J. Pol. & L., 4, 231.
  12. Newmen, P; Thornley , A.(2005).: Planning World Cities: Palgrave macmillan Publishers.
  13. Sassen, S.(2006). Cities In A World Economy: Pine Forge Press An Imprint of Sage Publications.
  14. Schmitt, C (2020), Theory of the Partisan: Intermediate Commentary on the Concept of the Political .
  15. Short, J. R; Kim, Y. H. (2005). Globalization and the City; Translated by: Dr. Ahmad Poorahmad, Shayan (hero) Rostami; Tehran; Publications of the Institute of Humanities, Culture and Social Studies, University of Tehran. [In Persian]
  16.  Short, J.R. (2004). Global Metropolitan: Globalizing Cities in a Capitalist World;  Routledge Publishers.
  17. Soja, W. E. (2000). Post-metropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Region,  Blackwell Publishers.
  18. Taylor, P.J; Watts, M.J; Johnston R.B.(2002).Geographies of Global Change: Blackwell Publishers.
  19. Taylor, P.J.(1994). Political Geography: Routledge Publishers.
  20. Taylor, P.J.(2004). World city networks: A Global urban Analysis; Routledge Publishers.
  21. Taylor, P.J .(2001). A New Mapping of the World for the New Millennium , Geopolitics Quarterly,Vol:167,P 213- 222.
  22. Vander Pluijm, R.; Melissen, J. (2007). City diplomacy: The expanding role of cities in international politics. La Haya: Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.‏

Webster, F. (2003). Theories of the information society; Translated by: Mehdi Davoodi; Tehran; Ministry of Foreign Affairs Publications. [In Persian]

Volume 17, Issue 62
June 2021
Pages 62-91
  • Receive Date: 29 July 2020
  • Revise Date: 05 April 2021
  • Accept Date: 22 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 08 May 2021