Geopolitical Analysis of Effective Factors on the Symbolization of Geographical Spaces of Tehran (Case Study: Symbolization of Milad Tower)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Full Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD Student of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Full Professor of Urbanization, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Urban symbols are the most important elements that represent economic, social and political dominant forces in the urban and its changes due to the changes at this forces. The main symbols of the city must to be able to represent and delegate this forces. Otherwise functions gradually are replaced by other symbols or by building the new symbols. As they use the different symbols for the identifying, introducing and repressing itself in different periods. Tehran as a political capital of Iran do not excluded from this rules. So that in the contemporary periods we see the change of symbols in the Tehran from the Azadi tower to the Milad tower.
Methodology of this paper is descriptive -analytic. Data gathering method is based on library, and field findings.
Result and Discussion
By looking at the list of advantages and shortcoming of Azadi and Milad Towers it can be understood that in terms of the weight of advantages the advantages Azadi tower is more.
Comparative Table of shortcomings and Advantage of Milad and Azadi Towers


Azadi Tower

Milad Tower



Strategic Visibility Ability

Objection access

node Function (the main communication center)

Deficiency symptoms of identity

Ness architectural features

Inability role in the socio-political processes

Political and social cognitive functioning

Salience of economic performance (one-dimensional)



Lack of visibility

High Visibility (trace function)

Changing attitudes in Tehran people

Modern functions of Tower (representing the forces of capitalism)

Economic and social transformation


Political developments


Municipal neglect and Broadcasting



According to the findings of the research, efforts that for building and institutionalization of Milad tower indirectly have been attempt for representation of economic factors, forces of capitalism system and western lifestyle and change the attitudes of citizens. From other view, these attempts are representing the power cracks and class difference between rich and medium classes of Iran. Azadi tower has been the symbol of attempts of Iran society for announcement and application of political, social and economic demands and Milad tower becomes the symbol of dominants capital system on the Tehran urban space. But these two towers largely show the shortages of Tehran in having a comprehensive symbol and in terms of function are the complementary and it worth that they should be iconized in accordance on behalf of two Organizations of Tehran Municipality and Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting.


Volume 13, Issue 46
June 2017
Pages 35-66
  • Receive Date: 30 July 2015
  • Revise Date: 16 January 2016
  • Accept Date: 05 October 2016
  • First Publish Date: 22 June 2017