Document Type : Original Article
Associate Professor of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
PhD Graduated of Europian Studies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
By looking at the thousands years of antiquity of Nowruz and its endurance during all the historical ups and downs imposed on this cradle of human civilization it can be stated that this cultural phenomenon roots in believes, ideologies and values of people living in this region of the world. Since 90s, the world witnessed the globalization phenomenon and a new wave of regional convergence based on cultural and economic commonalities. Most of these convergence and regionalisms lead to economic, political and social development and flourishment of certain regions. Despite significant capabilities, Nowruz cultural- geographical region has not accomplished this aim yet. Ideological and political challenges among regional countries, has lead the orientation of these countries toward one of the three main powers i.e., western, Russia or Islam world. In view of several convergence obstacles in Middle East and Islam world, and also Iran’s failure in absorbing the convergence of Islamic countries, Middle East and Persian Gulf countries, the necessity of redefining the relations with Nowruz-domain countries based on cultural diplomacy and convergence has gained a huge attention.
This article is based on Analytical- Descriptive method, and data and information collection methods are generally based on Library method. Following data collection and classification, their analysis has been carried out using description based on thought, logic and reasoning.
The impacts of globalization on convergence enhancement within “Nowruz” cultural domain can be examined from three aspects:
1. Cultural Impacts: One of the serious issues in novel diplomatic extent is concentration and draw on its cultural capabilities. Indeed, in this type of diplomacy, it is “Nowruz” cultural domain which may provide opportunities of collaboration among these countries, considering its civilized origin-from lands of Western China to Eastern Mesopotamia and Middle Asia. In view of importance and expansive cultural role of “Nowruz”, it can be considered as a cultural factor to apply cultural diplomacy along with regional convergences.
First of all, with more than thousands years of antiquity in an expansive civilized domain, Nowruz has been always the point of attraction. In this way, the importance and the extent of influence of this celebration have made this common symbol popular across an expansive geographical extent, from Minor Asia, Middle Asia and even parts of India to Europe and Middle East. Moreover, despite numerous existing obstacles and challenges, numerous countries have determined it as the beginning of New Year. Second, the collaboration of region’s countries on internationally registering Nowruz in United Nations in recent years, presents the importance and high dignity of this ancient ritual. Third, it can be said that drawing on Nowruz diplomacy as leverage in foreign politics and the relations of the region’s countries, could practically have extensive contributions and benefits. In this way, on one hand profiting more of cultural and diplomatic potentials of Nowruz, may develop the cultural collaboration and influential effects of Nowruz-domain countries; Middle Asia, Caucasus and Western Asia. Fourth, Nowruz-pivot countries can increase their influential and communicative role in abroad. They can also emphasis on mitigating the divergence of views and collaboration obstacles and also prevention from divergence politics across region, by increasing the convergence among regional countries.
2. Economic impacts: From economics point of view, the impact of globalization on Nowruz-pivot countries among certain global indicators such as the increase in quality among domestic goods, growth based on capabilities and region’s resources or at least indirect investment, optimal usage of resources and facilities, competition, welfare, life quality enhancement, decrease of government tenure and also the increase in privatization will become evident. The economic structure in Nowruz-pivot countries lacks dynamicity and flexibility, despite benefiting from potential conditions. As such, the most important factor of economic prosperity or enhancement of dignity within this domain in global economy is externalist vision with the aim of forming coherent and reliable bond with global economy and also the absorption of foreign investment and financing. In addition to change the insight of political elites and the process of decision-making in foreign policy and also their attention and focus on the importance of economic factors in the present era and provision or modification of legal structures, this crucial fact requires the activation of economic diplomacy.
3. Security- political impacts: Globalization results in growth of knowledge and security indicators. Multipolar system resulted from globalization, helps the Nowruz-pivot countries to try to adapt their capabilities throughout the international system, without the domination of unipolarity or bipolarity. Nowruz-region countries could provide a strong back-up for their survival by supporting the public culture. In this case, not only won’t they be imperishable, but also they could strengthen themselves using communicative technologies; develop common ideas with governments of same level; and finally with the economic atmosphere dominated over the world, cooperate more in order to be impervious against threats.
Regionalist view based on the definitions of regional convergence in the era of globalization, could be absolutely influential on social, economic, political and security development throughout the countries of a domain. Currently the convergence and regional streams in Middle East, Islam’s world, Arab world and Persian Gulf, each has defeated for several reasons. This failure presents the necessity of changing the view and also a new definition of region based on more fundamental commonalities. Rotating the orientation of each of the Nowruz-region countries from outside to inside (external to internal) and from off-access vicinity to nearby neighbors, considering linguistic, cultural, racial and historical roots, could bring about a valuable acquisition for mentioned regional countries. Multilateral and annual meetings, activation of cultural diplomacy system, setting up new year celebration in coordinated and simultaneous forms, students and professors exchange, establishing interactive university branches, focus on common literature and survival of “Nowruz “ elements such as “Amoo Nowruz” (Uncle Nowruz) and launching Multi language satellite channels, could play an effective role on the enhancement of common cultural elements.
On the other hand, 400 million population of this region can act as an appropriate market for the products of every single country of this region. The assessment of economic needs based on cultural characteristics such as wearing culture, music, cinema, art, nutrition culture (food) and etc. can be influential in the promotion of domestic productions and consequently leads to economic development. Launching security system in the direction of war against terrorism, extremism, drug traffic, human traffic, security of borders and etc. could increase the regional security. Exclusion of passport requirement, organizing common travel tours to visit member countries, developing institutions and social networks, result in an enhancement of multilateral and social sciences. It can also cause cultural, racial and ideological suspicions be less prominent.
Based on diverse perspectives, it can be said that globalization and regionalism can have negative / positive mutual effects on each other. Since current research has examined the impacts of globalization on convergence enhancement in security, political, economic and cultural contexts across Nowruz-region countries, it can be said that globalization regardless of its few negative impacts can bring about positive impacts in mentioned contexts in the direction of convergence enhancement of Nowruz. Globalization pressure causes regional countries tend to have active role in the international field to cooperate with neighbor countries and gain benefits. Tools used in regionalism and commercial arrangements are similar to those of the process of globalization. Thus, the globalization in Nowruz region has provided an appropriate situation for economic development in this area. In other words, effective factors on economic convergence across the countries of a region include free trade, intra-region investment, process of specializing the productions from transnational firms and elimination of commercial obstacles and etc. Those factors can also be influential in economic globalization. One of the common characteristics of these two concepts is formation of competitive atmosphere among converged countries. Nowruz-region countries such as some of the third-world countries will not confront chaos and intense economic crisis. While in order to reach its specific position, global cooperation is required. Nowruz domain has a large underground resources and massive population. If we consider knowledge and information as the main element of globalized economy and wealth as human aptitude and intelligence, the possibility of entering this countries to the technology scene is based on open knowledge, and this region has this capability.