Document Type : Original Article
Assistant Professor of International Relations, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
PhD Graduated of Political Geography and Researcher of Parliament Research Center, Tehran, Iran
PhD Student of Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
The importance of the geographical factor in political thought is to the extent that many thinkers have based their theories on it. Geographical experts, by examining the prodigious impact of geography conditions on human life, consider the factor of geography in political and social life as a very important and even cite the living conditions of communities as a result of such factors and circumstances. Geography plays a significant role in states territoriality; however, a clever use of it requires laws accordance with the geographical- spatial characteristics of national territories. Because this laws can have maximum efficiency and effectiveness when they are approval, monitored and enforced in accordance with the geography. Accordingly, this study is determined to examine the role of geography in the legislation, particularly in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
This study is an applied research type which is done through a descriptive-analytic approach. Data collection has been done by using library and the internet findings and the material will be analyzed qualitatively.
Result & Discussion
For optimal space to be realized, each geographical space requires specific laws made in regard to its own characteristics. Therefore, legislation based on the spatial-geographic characteristics, regional differences and explanation of these differences in laws is called geographical legislation. The purpose of the application of geographical legislation is laws that in the process of writing, approval and implementation of them, the state's geographical features and differences in different areas in terms of natural, environmental, cultural, economic, political and social backgrounds are taken into account, and these are considered as the essential feature of the legislation. Hence it can be said that geographical legislation has close relation with political organization of space and spatial planning studies that the main aim is a balanced development of different parts of the country and drawing a road map for sustainable development.
Reviewing the historical developments in Iran, especially in the current period, shows that legislation and management is not done on the basis of geography and spatial differences. One of the important issues in the geographic legislation is paying attention to the potentials and capacities of each area by guiding economic and cultural activities in order to take advantage of these benefits. Although parts of the country have diverse geographic- spatial abilities suitable for different activities, but lack of laws that lead to increased investment in these areas is leading to lesser-than-appropriate use of potentials and non-realization of geographic - spatial justice.
Also, due to the absence of appropriate spatiality in state country which would be planned based on spatial-geographic characteristics, realization of geopolitical features and situation of the Islamic Republic of Iran has not been achieved. On the other hand, one of the main concerns of current regime is the establishment of full security across its territory to prevent terrorist acts and activities. This requires both suitable legislation and administration based on spatial-geographical differences of border areas of the country. For each of the regions, a specific strategy should be developed. Taking advantage of the geographical legislation, our security approach must change and acquire a modern structure. Because geographical space of the Islamic Republic of Iran is so vast that every area of the country requires its own management system, but unfortunately what is witnessed is centralized management practice.
The most important factors and sources of power exist in the geography of each country and most importantly, the geographical characteristics often play fundamental role in the formation of other elements of economic, political and military power. States which used this factor for the management, administration and control of their national territory have created necessary backgrounds for well-balanced economic development and geographical-spatial well-fare, and provided for the preservation and promotion of their national power and national security. Because basically every part of the national territory is due to natural and human factors and their interrelations considered a geographical space, it requires special management and legislation for optimal administration and development. The Islamic Republic of Iran is a state with different geographical areas with specific characteristics, each of these areas has a lot of potential and actual capacities that can lead to their flourish and bring about progress and balanced development across its’ territory. Geographical potentials of Iran’s national power has basically made our country eligible for becoming a regional and even global power. It should be noticed that proper laws and management and use of high-quality manpower can help this potential to be realized. But reflection of the centralized legislative and administrative approach on Iran's diverse geography has resulted different geographical areas to have identity, increasing in disregard to regional and local realities, and increasing in expenses, regional and local legal inefficiency which is in contrary to what we see in central part.