Document Type : Original Article
Ph.D Student of Regional Studies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor of Regional Studies, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
Despite the influential crisis in the regional, Tehran and Masqat relations during some decades witness's constancy and relative stability. Sultanate of Oman in spite of its membership in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) doesn’t follow its procedureIn front of Iran. In addition, Masqat with moderate diplomacy adoption has acted as mediator in Iran’s important international and regional political cases including nuclear deal. Iran and Oman try to promote political and economic relations in near future. This research tries to answer the reasons of stability in the two countries’ relationship in recent years.
The research is analytic- descriptive, and data gathering procedure is based on library findings and formal political documents. The goals are finding identity commons in two countries base on Constructivism Theory.
Results and Discussion
1-Oman Foreign Policy: Oman foreign policy has experienced four paces:
First: Unity (Oman foreign policy like other modern governments formed based on collective steps in front of internal and external events without subjective profit from one problem for another problem evolutional). Second: transition (as a result of South riots-Dhofar- and leaders' thoughts and perceptions, Oman lived in isolation era and did not pay attention to foreign affairs, entering into a transition era took five years (1970-75). Third: foreign Affairs Expansion: (Oman, immediately after finishing South riots-Dhofar and determining borderlines, broke the isolationand chose expansion of foreign affairs agenda with neighboring and other counties. Characteristics of this stage was seriousness and readiness for joining international system and transition necessities in regional and international relations rules). Fourth: maturity, evaluation and modernization (King Qaboos paid attention to establish security, political and social infrastructure and by his perception formed the capacity to legislate the sovereignty road map. He organized his foreign policy based on realties and possibilities and impartial and partnership about regional and international relations).
2-King Qaboos foreign policy principles:
King Qaboos with inspiration history, culture, religion of Oman and in general Omani identity defined his foreign policy based on these principles:1- rely on advanced planning rules, 2-commitment to religious and civilization dimensions, 3- connection to Arabs, 4-acceptance of geostrategic reality, 5- learn from history, 6-personality factor and policy making in Oman, 7-dialog and discourse, 8- emphasis on domestic output in international politics structures, 9-the principle of profit in international politics, 10- emphasis on collective mechanism, 11- positive impartial.
Iran and Oman have many common identities including religion (Ibadhi in Oman and Shiite in Oman) and common geography (Strait of Hormuz and its management). Ibadhi like Shiite believe in inference of religious commandments unlike Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia which search jurisprudence. Ibadhi unlike Wahhabism is temperance and moderate religion and moderation is real characteristic of King Qaboos diplomacy. In addition, Shiite in Iran and Ibadhi in Oman are minorities in front of Sunni. Iran and Oman behavior cautiously considering Saudi Arabia policies, and nowadays by inspiring common principles they are witnessed close relation.
Tehran and Masqat with enjoying common identity and far from crisis in region form their relationship and create joint interests. Oman as an Arab country has close relation with Islamic Republic of Iran. This country is Iran partner in Strait of Hormuz management, and acted as a mediator in Iran nuclear deal, direct dialog between Iran and USA and Yemen crisis and in in addition to economic cooperation, Iran plans mega projects like natural gas export to Oman.