Analysis of the Position of Science and Technology in the Realm of Hard, Soft and Smart Power

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Student of Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Power is among the notions that in the focus of attention of experts in political geography
and Geopolitic. Accordingly, many scholars have discussed the nature, scope, deminsion and
function of power. According to the one of the newest classification of power, it is divided
into three forms of hard power, soft power and smart power. on the other hand, of years away,
science and Nowadays, along with its; technology are considered as one of the main sources
of the power. Hence, considering the fact that the Interest of global powers in the field of
science and technology have been added more than the past, this research seeks to analyze
the position of science and technology in the realm of hard and soft and smart power.
In this research, has been used through descriptive-analytical research method.Therefore, in the
first stage, by studying library resources such as books, research projects and articles in Farsi and
Latin, the role and position of science and technology has been Surveyied ; And its advantages
over hard, soft and smart power dimensions have been described and analyzed. In the next step
and in the field research, a three-question questionnaire was developed in two Persian and English
languages based on Likert, and was attended by 400 domestic and foreign experts in the field of
political geography, and International Relations and Geostrategic; finally, comments They have
been investigated about the effects of science and technology on hard, soft and smart power.
The findings of this study have been derived from two parts of library resources and field research.
Accordingly, in accordance with library finding , science and technology have three approaches to
influencing various forms of power, including hard, soft and smart.
1. The first approach: the hard power approach; that in it used the capacity of science and technology
to influence the components of hard power (military and economic power) and it also is used fo
strengthen bargaining power with rival and hostile countries. to more precise phrase, if we
concentrate the most important sources of hard power in the country's economic capacity and
military power; science and technology, through various mechanisms, will have an impact on these
two areas of power.
2. The Second Approach: Soft Power Approach; in the sense that the benefits of science and
technology with the help of the diplomacy of science and technology are used for effect and
strengthen soft power. According to the findings of this section, science and technology, as a tool for
the application of soft power, have the basical potential in foreign policy and especially in diplomacy
of science and technology, Hence, these benefits will be thoroughly examined in this approach.
3. Third Approach: Smart Power Approach; in the sense that from the capacity of science and
technology will be used to combine and unite mechanisms of hard power and soft power under
the guidance of diplomacy tool in order to apply of smart power. According to this approach, The
center of smart diplomacy is science and technology, which has both the hard power and soft power
features , while at the same time demonstrating the ability to boycott, and the ability to partner and
converge. of course, this role is more under the ownership of diplomacy of science and technology.
But the field findings and results and average scores obtained from domestic and foreign thinkers
Also have emphasized that science and technology have high degree of influence in three dimensions
hard, soft, and smart power.
The analize of research's findings reflect the fact that the new developments have leded the role
of science and particularly technology, as a key element, have attractived more than ever by the
view of the majority of global powers. which, of course, partly reflects nature and character of
science and technology; So that Between the various components that are influencing the power
of a country, whether either in viewpoint of appearance or in viewpoint of Thinkers, Science
and technology have a double nature. therefore, it have this the capacity and potential that hard
power and soft power can been connectived under of the ownership of diplomacy of science
and technology. on this basis, science and then technology can be thought of as the most
important linker of hard power, soft power and smart power.
The results showed that although in the past centuries, territory, population, agricultural
resources, military power were the sources of authority, but in the present time, this role has
been transferred to science and technology; in fact, though that from ancient times, science
as a the source of authority has been important; but in the current era, this role has been
enhanced with the help of technology; therefore, today, science and technology not only in
its vast definition are probably the most important source of power, but also been impressed
on the use of other forms of power and altered their mechanism and actions.
Therefore, in the context of the globalization process and the complexity of the social and
international environment, after the collapse of the bipolar system, we are witnessing the
growing impact of science and technology on political issues and the equations of power on
the international level. So, As America's position at the top of global geometry of power, to
a large extent, reflects the use of science and technology in pursuit of political, economic,
military, cultural and other goals.For this reason, in today's world, science and technology
can be used as a rating card in the confront with global equations, since that it have a
significant impact on hard, soft, and smart power of countries.


Volume 13, Issue 47
September 2017
Pages 103-138
  • Receive Date: 18 February 2017
  • Revise Date: 18 April 2017
  • Accept Date: 23 May 2017
  • First Publish Date: 23 September 2017