Document Type : Original Article
- Assistant Professor of Military Geography, Imam Hossein University,Tehran, Iran
- MA of Military Geography, Imam Hossein University,Tehran, Iran
National security is the essence of independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty. Maintaining of other purposes and also creating and grounds of any immense goal depend on creating and preserving of national security. Thus National security is one of the most important foreign policy goals of each country. The secret of national security is possessing of secure borders. Iranian border with Afghanistan due to the characteristics of poverty, deprivation (especially in neighboring frontier–settlers), instability, promote an atmosphere of chaos and lawlessness, the presence and activities of armed terrorist groups and drug cartels in the region, illegal passage, immigrant citizens, is one of the most Crisis-prone and vulnerable parts of the country. Thus due to the border permeability, security in the region and Khorasan Razavi province of different aspects of reality is threatened. This case has forced Iran to control its borders in the form of large investment on border blockage projects. Given the huge imposed costs of the border blockage project on Iran and lack of scientific research on positive and negative impacts of the project, the present study try to answer to this question that how control of Khorasan border with Afghanistan, affect on the province security and with what ways it can be improved?. In terms of methodology, this study has a correlation nature and characterizes the relationship between two variables of border control and security, which conducted using both documents (Library, receipt imaging, statistics agencies and different organizations) and field study (observation and interviews with authorities and frontier–settlers) methods, and also by use of inferential statistics software package SPSS and GIS, the information is collected and analyzed.
Results and Discussion
One of the main factors influencing security and border provinces, which can also be considered as a reinforcing factor, is the frontier–settlers livelihood issue. Results of the analysis of questionnaires and interviews with public, officials and statistics from national and international agencies, indicate that the border control project represents a significant impact on regional security and mutually livelihoods, so that 87 percent of people and officials in the three border city, believed to the mentioned findings. In the case of border control and the ways in which it is implemented in the region, boundary checkpoint construction with 90 percent is in the first rank, concrete construction with 70 percent is in the second rank, and construction of border markets with 60 percent is in the third rank of border security and improve livelihoods in the region. An important matter is that only the physical buildings and use of electronic devices are not sufficient to security establishment and the development and prosperity factors in the region beside physical control should be noted. Any plan should be implemented based on the mentioned mutual relationship to see increasing security in the region.
After analyzing the research findings, the final model of the research was derived and was determined that security creation depends on two factors of border control and frontier–settlers livelihood. On the other hand a direct and mutual relationship exists between border control and frontier–settlers livelihood. Only focusing on one of the mentioned factors in establishing security in the region and the province is in vain. After determining the relationship between border control and frontier–settlers livelihoods, the parameters involving in border control, according to the model, are development model and the Military-Law Enforcement. In development models the border markets can be activated and developed, in Military - Law Enforcement model by two methods of physical blockage of the border with establish of police stations, and construction of concrete walls and electronic blockage in the highlands and mountainous such as Jahanam-dareh region in Torbat-Jam where there is not the possibility of using a physical obstruction, optical equipments, radar and GIS should be used. Therefore the present study suggests that Khorasan Razavi province border with Afghanistan can be controlled using the integrated model. In terms of frontier-settlers' livelihoods, by creating jobs (by establishing of border markets) and the subsequent increase income, reduce unemployment, the livelihoods of the region can be improved which ultimately leads to increased security in the region and the studied province.