Representing Imaginary Enemy: A Geopolitical Discourse

Document Type : Original Article


1 - Associate Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 -Full Professor of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 - Ph.D Student of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran


formation of geopolitical discourse on imaginary enemy. The current research has been accomplished on the basis of descriptive methodology, linguistic viewpoints and Foucaudian discourse. As Foucault believes that nothing significant exists outside the discourse, the imaginary enemy is also on world’s cultural and political structures existing under the framework of discourse and power relationship in order to political and cultural hegemony against “other” culture, creed and sect etc. 
The results of this study shows that political actors and media institutions have used different methods such as inhuman representation of rivals, excessive prevalence, selectivity, transition, releasing part of truth, projection, identicalization, resorting to war, labeling,  distinguishing, retroversion, projection, negativity and positivity, discursive closures,  selecting bad from worse, using two factual news to legitimize a false one, using signs and symbols,  media credibility,  humiliating and ridiculing, creating fear and terror, disinformation, delusive generalization, color politics, using false cartographic technique, geopolitical metaphors, message repetition so that they could they could produce and fix the idea and image of imaginary enemy on general public opinion. 


Volume 6, Issue 20
December 2011
Pages 7-40
  • Receive Date: 17 June 2010
  • Revise Date: 28 August 2010
  • Accept Date: 16 November 2010
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2010