A Geopolitical Approach Toward Deficit and Non- Growth of Democracy in The Middle East [Case Study: Iran and Saudi Arabia]

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor at the Department of Political Geography and a Faculty Member of the University of Tehran,Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor at the Department of Geography and a Faculty Member of the University of Hormozgan, Hormozgan, Iran

3 Political Geography Ph.D. Student at the University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 PhD Student, Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Turkey


It is argued in this paper that the non-formation or non-growth of democracy in the Middle East is related to geopolitical centrality. The network analysis of Iran and Saudi Arabia in terms of geopolitical centrality indicates that the high geopolitical centrality of these two countries in the existing geopolitical sub-networks at this region is one of the important barriers against realization and promotion of democracy. In Iran before 1979 Revolution, its high centrality under geopolitical sub-networks of security and the west and also after the 1979 Revolution, its high centrality in several ideological sub-networks have made slower Liberal democratic growth in this region.in contrast In Saudi Arabia, high centrality of this country since 1980s   in ideological sub-networks and its role in geopolitical sub-networks of  west and security  on three past decades has hindered formation of Liberal democracy in this country..


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