The Role of Indonesian and Egyptians’ NGOs in Democratisation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor Academy of Islamic Civilization, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Technologi Malaysia.

2 Academy of Islamic Civilization, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Lecturer at Department of History, Universitas Negeri Semarang (Semarang State University), Indonesia.

3 Academy of Islamic Civilization, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Technologi Malaysia.


The emergence of Non Government Organizations (NGOs) in various fields of life is proof that civil society is essential in building a democratic society. NGOs can educate citizens and communities on their fundamental rights to create a democratic state and world order life. NGOs in Indonesia and Egypt have played a significant role in strengthening democratic movements by empowering civil society. This study examines NGOs’ role in democratization in Indonesia during the reign of President Suharto and Egypt under the leadership of President Hosni Mubarak. In carrying out their functions, NGOs take a stand as a balancing force for the state and agents of community empowerment. The NGOs’ elements struggle in producing an ideal democratic society order in these two countries facing their respective challenges. Some NGOs challenge building democratic society such as military domination, party hegemony systems, and robust state control over society. To encourage democratization in Indonesia and Egypt, NGOs have contributed to building democratic practices, improving democratic performance, strengthening civil rights, monitoring elections, and promoting corruption eradication. The strengthening of democracy by NGOs in Indonesia and Egypt has impacted building political openness, awareness of citizens' political rights, and pro-society public policies.


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