The Role of the Great Game in the Inefficiency of the Formality System of the Iranian Court from 1796 to 1896

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of History and Iranology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 MA, Department of History, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Historically, formalities and diplomatic protocols, as one of the pillars of successful international diplomacy, have played a crucial role in shaping the political currents of the time. This study examines and studies the role and effect of British-Russian rivalries regarding the inefficiency of the Iranian formality system, as well as analyzing the function of these formalities in the relations of this power triangle during the Qajar era, and by means of a historical method and a descriptive-analytical view which is based on documents, travelogues and historical resources of the Qajar era, it seeks to answer the questions of to what extent diplomatic rituals and ceremonies have been effective in the rivalry and emulation of Russian and British governments in Iran? What were the factors that led to the structural weakness of Iran's formalities and its becoming a buffer state in the great game between Russia and Britain? What role did the performance of the Russian and British ambassadors play in Iran's formality relations?
It seems that factors such as imitation and competition of the British and Russian ambassadors for Formalities respect caused the role of Formalities in Iran's relations with the Russian and British governments to be not positive and effective. Meanwhile, the performance of the Russian and British ambassadors, the establishment of Formality agreements and the negligence of the Iranian government were not ineffective in shaping formality actions and reactions between the governments


Main Subjects

  1. AH 1250-K3-P15: 33, Information on the formalities of the day of arrival and being honored in the presence of the king on Eid al-Fitr.
  2. AH 1269- K7-P33: 6.1, formalities of the day of arrival of the Russian ambassador to a special greeting.
  3. AH 1269-K7-P33: 7, Procedures required for the arrival of consuls of countries in Iran in Anzali and Rasht.
  4. AH 1269- K7-P33: 26, the appointment of the ambassador of the Russian government to the Holy Court of the emperor.
  5. AH 1269-K7-P33: 30, concerning the formalities sent to General Minkoys to succeed the Caucasus.
  6. AH 1269-K7-P33: 31, the formalities required for Anchikov's arrival and the number of greeters.
  7. AH 1271- K7- P23: 9, form of formalities of Monsieur Anchikov.
  8. AH 1273-K8- P5: 19, Letter from the Prime Minister Mirza Aga Khan Nouri to Mirza Hussein Khan Khan, the agent of Tbilisi.
  9. AH 1273-K8-P37: 4, form of Russian official formalities on Sunday 18 Jamadi-al-Thani.
  10. AH 1273- K8-P37: 8, the arrival of the Russian envoy to the Qazvin gate and performing the necessary formalities.
  11. AH 1283-K12-P2: 1, Communication of the formalities of the Russian Chargé d'Affaires.
  12. AH 1283-K12- P12: 2, the form of the formalities of the day of the arrival of General Min Quiz, sent by Nawab to the special greetings of His Highness the Holy Emperor.
  13. AH 1283-K12- P12: 2-3, the form of the formalities of the day of the arrival of General Min Quiz, sent by Nawab to the special greetings of His Highness the Holy Emperor.
  14. AH 1283-K12-P2: 17-17.1-17.2, Russian Charger Burial Ceremony in 1283.
  15. AH 1292-K15-P6: 9, form of formalities of the day of arrival of the Russian consul in the month of Rajab 1292.
  16. AH 1253- K3- P15426, form of ceremony to mourn the death of the King of England and congratulations on the enthronement of Queen Victoria.
  17. AH 1269-K7-P33: 11, on the formalities for the arrival of the French ambassador.
  18. AH 1269- K7- P33: 23, the form of ceremonies of the sovereign ministers of London and Paris on the day of entering the Dar al-Khalafah.
  19. AH 1269-K7-P33: 24, the formalities for the union of states according to custom.
  20. AH 1279.80- K10- P27: 9, Minutes of the Honorary Day of Mr. Ellison, British Prime Minister.
  21. AH 1279- K12- P 10:11, letter of formalities for the arrival of the British ambassador in Tehran.
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Volume 18, Issue 68
January 2022
Pages 226-249
  • Receive Date: 06 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 08 October 2021
  • Accept Date: 26 November 2021
  • First Publish Date: 26 November 2021