The Impact of Wahhabi Neo-Salafi Ideology on Extremist Currents in Africa

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geopolitics, Center for African Studies, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 M.Sc. Student of Political Science, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Extended Abstract     
The Curbing and finally of the eradicating the real extremist terrorist of organizations is an urgent need today. But this is only the first step and part of a bigger effort. Problems with a universal nature and deep of roots must be properly understood. In addition, genuine of global cooperation is needed to combat these phenomena. Among the various regions of the of world, especially the African continent, more than any other region, it is struggling with the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism. The rise of the Taliban, Bokou Haram, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, ISIS, Ansar al-Sharia, and many other terrorist and extremist groups in the region is a testament to this claim. The causes of terrorism in the African region can be traced to a variety of contexts, including political, social, economic, and cultural. For a long of time, various groups and currents in this region of the world have redefined their identities in the direction of terrorist and extremist behaviors. Adoption of Resolution A / 68 / L.31 on December 10, 2013, entitled "The World of Against Violence and Extremism" at the UN General Assembly, at the suggestion of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which was adopted by a unanimous vote of the representatives of 190 countries without opposition. It shows how much the international community feels threatened by this phenomenon. On the other hand, in providing a solution to curb extremism, given the negative mental history of African countries, the role of Wahhabism and neo-Salafis in creating insecurity on the continent and the spread of sectarian wars and challenging religious concepts such as jihad and the famous And the prohibition of denial, which has greatly expanded over the years; History of Iranian rule in East Africa over the past of thousand years; As a symbol of influencing the people of Africa, it can be considered by scholars and the formation of the Shiraz Empire in the islands of East Africa, especially Zanzibar, is an example of the transmission of political thought in the form of concepts such as the of Shah; Minister School and dozens of other words are used today in the Swahili language.
The research method is documentary, analytical and survey. Based on the main research topic (the impact of Wahhabi neo-Salafi ideology on extremist currents in Africa) while reviewing the characteristics of Wahhabi neo-Salafi ideology, data from theoretical studies and scientific, religious and executive plans and documented reports of relevant organizations The basic information was collected and classified. Due to the fact that the ideology of neo-Salafism has systemic and integrated effects and concepts, the Demethel technique was used to determine the cause-and-effect relationships between the variables of extreme currents. The Demetel technique was introduced by Fonetla and Gabus in 1971. The purpose of the Demetel technique is to identify the pattern of causal relationships between a set of criteria. This technique scores the intensity of communication in a scoring manner, explores their critical feedback, and accepts non-transferable relationships. The basis of the DEMATEL method is based on the assumption that a system contains a set of criteria {C = {c1, c2,… cn and the pairwise comparison of the relationships between them can be modeled by mathematical equations. This technique is for constructing and analyzing structural models related to complex causal relationships between the factors of an issue.
 Result and Discussion
The study was conducted based on 22 criteria and indicators according to Table (1). The importance of the indicators (J_i + R_i) and the relationship between the criteria (J_i-R_i) are determined. If J_i-R_i> 0 the relevant criterion is effective and if J_i-R_i <0 the relevant criterion is effective. The table above shows D_i + R_i and J_i-R_i. Figure (1) shows the importance and effectiveness between the criteria. The horizontal vector (J + R) is the amount of influence of the desired factor in the system. In other words, the higher the J + R factor, the more it interacts with other system factors. Variables such as ideology of elimination, interventions of UN and international institutions, cultural poverty and ideology of African Muslims, government inefficiency, anti-apartheid movement to combat racism, etc. in the region show high interaction and strong systemic relationship with other variables. On the other hand, as can be seen, the vertical vector (J - R) shows the influence of each factor. The variables of cultural poverty and ideology of African Muslims, economic marginalization, elimination ideology, French intervention as the Francophone Union, relative and absolute deprivation, social movement to counter the culture of colonialism and decolonization, etc. are the reasons for this systemic model. To be. Factors such as the lack of coherent activity of the Islamic Awakening, the negative view of the new African generation of Western colonialism, structural weakness in the logarithmic index and its significant difference with other parts of the world, lack of sufficient income, etc. are shown as disabilities. In general, if J - R is positive, the variable is a causal variable, and if it is negative, it is a disability.
Wahhabi tools in of Mecca and Medina have been teaching circles in the Holy Mosque and the Prophet's Mosque, and this traditional method of education is still followed by Wahhabi muftis and African students. On the other hand, neo-Salafi movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood and its affiliated networks recruited students and elites from African Muslim countries in the form of new universities and educational centers, and by modeling the Western educational structure on educating Islamic students and drawing the foundations of Islamic fundamentalism. , Turned. Wahhabis and Salafists now use both traditional and modern teaching methods, and with all their tools, whether in a mosque, a university, or a jurisprudential center, spread Wahhabism in Africa and influence among the poor and needy. Take. The ideology of Wahhabism, which has its of organizational and financial roots in of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the UAE, and Qatar, has today expanded its political diplomacy to the African continent by establishing development funds and charitable foundations in Africa invests heavily in education, health and charity. Saudi Arabia, whose financial support for takfiri and terrorist groups has been revealed to the world and is a major sponsor of takfiri terrorism, has sought to break out of global isolation by invading Yemen and forming a coalition of Arab states, bribing African leaders and supporting their leaders. The Republic has put the African mercenary on its agenda and is engaged in international recruitment by attending joint meetings with African Union leaders by distributing oil dollars. Leverage Kuwait: Kuwait Development Fund and Saudi Leverage: Wahhabi and Saudi universities. The African continent for a variety of reasons, including various software and hardware weaknesses, including economic backwardness, political instability, social inequality, and foreign interventions that benefit only from insecurity and instability. They do not see, it has now become a paradise for extremist groups and violent and terrifying terrorists. However, the fight against the ominous phenomenon of extremism and terrorism has not only led to the use of hardware and military methods, which the Western powers use as a strategy to repel terrorism in the region, but also so far. The eradication of terrorism has not taken place in this part of the world, but has had the opposite effect and has led to the increasing recruitment of terrorist groups in African countries. Now, with the above-mentioned descriptions, considering the causes and grounds for the growth of terrorism, which were explained in the above lines, it seems that carrying out structural reforms, both in the field of economy and politics, and social development in the long run, is one of the principled solutions. To curb terrorism and extremism on the Black Continent, as it can have a much deeper and more lasting impact on the eradication of terrorism in Africa. Also, poverty alleviation, laying the groundwork for sustainable development, establishing local interactions between the leaders of the groups involved and the established governments, responding to local priorities to motivate and ensure local participation, and eliminating ethnic and religious discontent. It can be another effective tool to prevent extremism and violent movements on the African continent. In addition, another effective solution is to use the capabilities of moderate Islamist groups to use their historical capacities and cultural commonalities to help establish, promote and stabilize the peace process in the region.


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