Globalization and marsh’s environment-population in Iraq using GIS analysis

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Applied Geography, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Karbala. Iraq

2 University of Babylon, College of Education for Human Sciences, Geographical Department


Iraq's Hammar marsh was a key region for food production economically. The Hammar marsh's ecosystem had started to deteriorate by 1980 because of the war. Ever since then it has had serious issues brought on by both natural and human causes. We highlight these issues, their links, and how social and economic forces led to environmental deterioration in this essay by focusing on globalization. We measured changes in ecological, economic, and social systems using a variety of metrics during the last 20 years in order to quantify the issues and chronicle the changes. Significant climatological changes, including decreases in precipitation and humidity as well as temperature rises, have influenced environmental deterioration in the Hammar marsh. The Hammar marsh's social structures were also subjected to a great deal of stress, including as conflict and sanctions. To determine how the environment has changed across three periods between 2002, 2012, and 2022, we computed and examined categorization changes in Landsat images. Throughout the research region, changes in climatological variables were linked to changes in the vegetation and water.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 25 September 2023
  • Receive Date: 27 November 2022
  • Revise Date: 16 September 2023
  • Accept Date: 25 September 2023