Formation of the Silk Road in the light of security Case study: The Relics and Archaeological Finds Periphery of Road, from Semnan to Garmsar, Central North of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 - Full Professor of Archaeology, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2 - Archaeology Graduated, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran


The Silk Road was the most important communicational-historical highway between ancient civilizations and was a main factor in their interacting. Although Silk is a new name for this route, it is very ancient. In the middle Parthian period (Mehrdad ІІ) trade formally and organizationally had been done through this road. When trade had been started with abroad and had linked east and west areas, this route had high importance role and it was the main economic source of the Parthian and even others. Undoubtedly, governors and businessmen had founded procedures and precise plans to dominate this road.     
In order to reconstruct the security systems, authors studied historical documents and surveyed relics and archaeological findings of the periphery of old route, from Semnanan to Garmsar city. Theoretical indices of security and the several procedures have provided that were required to trade and transition.
Results and discussion
The land of Iran was the best and easiest communicational route between east and west. This route was in the north of Iran, that was limited from Shahrood city to Caspian Gate (Ivanaki), and from north as a narrow natural corridor and passageway to the Alborz mountains and from south to the Kavir desert. Although our research focused on this part of the road, we can reconstruct commerce. Nevertheless, the security systems were a part of them.
Research findings show that in order to construct an international road natural conditions and facilities should be provided to supply environmental and financial security.