Explaining the Territoriality of Fundamentalist Organizations in Fragile States (Case Study: ISIS in Egypt)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Associate Professor of Political Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Political Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Political Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

4 PhD of Political Geography, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Extended Abstract
Fundamentalism in the form of action and behavior is one of the security issues of today's world, in such a way that territorialize and territoriality of the fundamentalist terrorist groups has become a major part of the world's security literature. Over the past decade, the region of North Africa has emerged from internal crises, regional political and ideological rivalries, and the interference of trans-national powers as the focal point for the emergence and expansion of radical ideas in such a way that the costs and effects of macroeconomics at the internal and international levels. In the meantime, the northern continent of Africa, and in particular the Egyptian state as a fragile state, has created the internal factors and the role of regional and international intervention powers providing opportunities for the expansion of ISIS's fundamentalist organization. With the advent of this group in Iraq and Syria, a new chapter was opened up on territorialization movements in the history of the region's transformations. Initially, the group was able to exploit the security gaps and internal crises in the developments in the southwestern Asia region, especially in the Syria civil war and structural disruptions in Iraq. After setting up in the South West Asia region, ISIS chose North African countries, in particular, Egypt as their next destination in the form of an action territorialitionaly.
The research is of a practical, applied and descriptive-analytical method. The required data and information is also provided by the library method. In this framework, first, using library studies (internal and external) of this research (documents and documents such as internal and external books, specialized journals and articles) as well as information from the World Wide Web (Internet) for collecting information. Then, using the above method, the data has been analyzed.
Since the Egyptian Sinai desert after the January 25, 2011 revolution, and the dismissal of Hosni Mubarak, has not been peaceful, it has become a security and pride for the Egyptian government at the time of Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.Sina's special position is a fertile ground for terrorist groups, but the limitations in the Sinai desert have been such that over the past 40 years, they have prevented the development and establishment of infrastructures necessary to maintain security in the area.Alongside all of the above mentioned, the interconnectedness of internal factors such as the strategic situation and energy sources, the crisis of legitimacy, spatial inequalities (the center-periphery), the weakness of the national correctional elements, the weakness of the central government, and the intervention of regional actors And transnationalism, the decline of the global economy, and the consequences of instability, such as the reduction of tourist incomes, etc., provided grounds for the realization and domination of fundamentalist organizations such as ISIS and other united groups in Egypt.
The results of the research showed that the fragility of the state, the political and international conditions governing the north of the Sinai peninsula in Egypt after the formation of the Zionist regime, the Arab-Israeli wars and the Camp David peace treaty, along with the ideological geography of the region, the background The realization and domination of ISIL; however, the lack of coordination with the regional and global geopolitical system and the failure of this group in the process of territorialize prevented the emergence of a new political-spatial entity that was rooted in the fundamentalist terrorism.