بررسی روابط ایران و تاجیکستان از منظر هیدروپلیتیک و ژئوکالچر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ‌ارشدگروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

آسیای مرکزی به‌واسطه اهمیت ژئواستراتژیک خود، در نظر قدرت‌های منطقه‌ای و جهانی جایگاه بسیار مهمی دارد و این قدرت‌‌ها همواره در تلاش برای حضور در این منطقه بوده اند. بگونه‌ای که از سده نوزده به بعد یکی از مناطق حساس ژئوپلیتیک جهان بوده است. در میان ویژگی کلان راهبردی این منطقه در نظام ژئوپلیتیک جهانی در درون نیز این منطقه دارای برخی ویژگی‌‌ها و عناصر جغرافیایی است که آن را واجد برخی چالش‌‌های ژئوپلیتیک قرار داده است که از جمله مهم‌ترین آنها موضوع آب است. در این میان کشور تاجیکستان به دلیل دارا بودن بخش مهمی از منابع آب منطقه از موقعیت فرادستی در آسیای مرکزی برخوردار است. بنابراین آسیای مرکزی و به ویژه تاجیکستان به واسطه داشتن اشتراکات فراوان فرهنگی با ایران، واجد اهمیت استراتژیک برای ایران است. با توجه به چنین امری مساله پژوهش حاضر این است که ضرورت ژئوپلیتیک حضور ایران در تاجیکستان چیست و فرصت‌ها و ابزارهای موجود در این میان دربرگیرنده چه مواردی است، همچنین عرصه بازیگری ایران در ژئوپلیتیک این منطقه چیست؟ یافته‌‌های پژوهش گویای آن است که با توجه به موقعیت برتر هیدروپلیتیک تاجیکستان در آسیای مرکزی به نظر می‌رسد سرمایه گذاری ایران در پروژه‌‌های آبی تاجیکستان در کنار پیوندهای فرهنگی دو کشور می‌تواند راهکار مناسب و کم هزینه‌ای برای پیشبرد علایق ژئوپلیتیک ایران در راستای گسترش حوزه نفوذ در منطقه آسیای مرکزی بوده و به دست بالای ژئوپلیتیک ایران نسبت به رقبای منطقه‌ای و فرامنطقه‌ای در این منطقه ژئوپلیتیک منجر شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying Hydro-Political and Geo-Cultural Relationship between Iran and Tajikistan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ata Abdi 1
  • Mohammad Amereh 2
  • Afshin Mottaghi 1
1 Associate Professor, Department of Political Geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
2 BSc in Political Geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
Introduction
Central Asia is at the focal point of all geopolitical theories. This region is also the biggest landlocked zone which has no access to water, and with a population of 66 million and inappropriate access to global market has become a tempting trading site for industrial countries such as China, India and Turkey. On the other hand, United States and European Union have some interests in this region such as presence in Russia’s backyard, approaching Iran’s borders and gaining control over these two countries by restricting them. Saudi Arabia and Israel have no less tendency to have access to this region to siege Iran and seek allies in international society. Therefore, each country is struggling to confirm its presence in this region based on their interests and possessions. These states are trying to establish a share of their own actions in this region: European Union by extending NATO, Russia by extending regional alliances, Turkey by economy and Turkish identity, Saudi Arabia by religious fundamentalism, China and India by economic development, US by establishing military bases and financial aid and Israel by sets of investments. Iran as a neighbor of central Asia with a wide historical and cultural links with this region, especially Tajikistan, is so inevitably involved, the Central Asia for Iran can be the sword to Damocles and in any case of activism in this region could threaten Iran. Thus, Iran has to invest in Tajikistan’s dam construction technology to catch existing opportunities to secure its national interests besides all the threatening circumstances.
The research method
The present study used documentary research to collect information and has portrayed a clear feature of Central Asia resources and their role in forming the relations of republics in this region based on the existing data and information. The research method has also been based on analytical and descriptive method.
The research findings
The existing data shows that Amu Darya and Syr Darya supply almost 90% of the water in Aral Lake which reaches to 125 cubic kilometers per year. The remaining 10 percent of the water comes from rivers and other small springs. Tajikistan is the main source of water supply. More than 55.4 percent of the total flows are originated in this country. Therefore, Tajikistan has the capacity to build 100,000 MW hydroelectric power plant and it can alone supply 5 percent of the world’s electricity.
This dispersion of water resources shows that nearly 60% of the whole Amu Darya storage capacity and 9% of the total Syr Drya storage capacity are in control of Tajikistan. Although Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan are the main suppliers and controllers of water flows, their overall water usage is less than 15 percent. On the contrary, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan use 71 percent of the accessible water, though they have less share of the water in this region. Most of this water is used for irrigation of cotton fields.
 In terms of access and exploitation of freshwater, Central Asian countries can be categorized as follows: Countries which have a lot of water, such as Tajikistan (64 km cubic meters, equivalent to 55.4% of the flowing waters of the Aral Lake) and countries with a small amount of water, such as Uzbekistan (8.8 km cubic meters or 7.6%), and Turkmenistan that supplies water entirely from outside of its borders.
Among Central Asian countries, nearly 100% of Kyrgyzstan's and Tajikistan's water is supplied from domestic resources. However, all Turkmenistan's water consumption and 50% of Uzbekistan's water are supplied from abroad.
Summary and conclusions
Tajikistan is one of the few countries in the world that can be a strategic alliance of Iran and also the most important country in Central Asia which can lead to the presence of Iran in the region. On the other hand, Iran is one of the few countries in the world that can defend Tajikistan against the adaptation of Russian and Turkish culture. The strong cultural share of the two countries will allow them to abandon many visa and business restrictions in the future and sign a military, economic, and cultural agreement.
 Tajikistan is the smallest country in terms of geographical extent and also the poorest in Central Asia. Therefore, both economically and nationally, there is a severe weakness in this country. The identity of this country is being threatened by the interference of the neighboring countries and the youth people immigrate abroad to find jobs. It has a large supply of hydroelectric power, which can also improve its economy by attracting foreign investment and by maintaining a balance of power in its national security area. Meanwhile, Iran is the largest Persian speaking country and is the heir to a great civilization among consanguineous countries and therefore responsible for their defense against Russian and Turkish full cultural adaptation. On the other hand, by investing in hydroelectric power, the country can engage and compete with its rivals, interregional and outsourcing rivals in Central Asia, while securing its economic interests and keep away the threats made by these countries.
But the presence of Iran in the central area requires the abandonment of the ideological view of the region and with a realistic insight and emphasis on cultural and linguistic relations should play a role in Central Asia and Tajikistan. Losing Tajikistan and pushing the country into regional rivals like Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the United States, Israel and Uzbekistan could lead to a complete cessation of Iran's presence in Central Asia. Although Tehran has good relations with Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan, these two countries cannot be reliable and trustworthy partners for Iran, and if their interests are changed, they will easily reduce their relations with Iran.
By investing in Tajikistan's economy, especially its water resources, Iran can establish unbreakable ties with Dushanbe, in addition to strengthening the Tajik economy and supplying Iran's water resources. Therefore, Iran can strengthen its presence in Central Asia by using Tajikistan's position, which will reduce the influence of its rivals and enhance the bargaining power of Iran. Therefore, it can be said that hydro-politics is a good field for Iran’s role in Central Asia.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hydro-politics
  • Central Asia
  • Tajikistan
  • Geo-culture
  • Iran
  1. Alawizadeh, S.M (2016). Iran-Tajikistan relations after the death of "Krymav", Fars news agency. [In Persian] URL: http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=13950812000406.
  2. Boddouhi, M (2011). Impact of Economic Interactions in the development of Iran and Tajikistan Relations, stadies of international relations journal, Volume 4, Issue 17 - Serial Number 16, Winter 2011, Pages 91-113. [In Persian]
  3. Cohen, S.B. (1994). Geopolitics in the new world era. Chapter 2 from reordering the world.
  4. Ezzati, E; Khezri, M.H (2011). The Great Khorasan in Water Geopolitics, The Great Khorasan University of Science, Year 2, No. 2, Spring 2011. [In Persian]
  5. Fakhari, G.R (1992). Dispute between Iran and Afghanistan on the issue of Hirmand River, Tehran, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Printing and Publishing Institute
  6. Hafeznia, M.R (2005). National power and interesre (sources, concepts and measurement methods), Selection Publications. [In Persian]
  7. Hamedani, A (2009). Transoxiana from the beginning to the present day, Ayra's Journal, year 4, No. 4, Spring and Summer 2009. [In Persian]
  8. Heidari, G.H (2004). Cultural Geopolitics or Geocalcer, Ideas of the Congress of the Iranian Geopolitical Association, Tehran, Iranian Geopolitical Association, GEOPOLITI- CS01_007. [In Persian]
  9. Heidari, G.Hassan,(2008). The 21st Century Global Geocultural System and Iran's Position "Proceedings" Security Environment Around the Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic Studies Research Institute Publications. [In Persian]
  • Karami, J (2008). Iran and Central Eurasia. Central Eurasia Studies, 1(1). [In Persian]
  • karani, z (2019). The impact of regional geoculture on relationships between Iran and Central Asian countries, Quarterly journal of south-west Asian studies, Spring 2019, No 5, Article code: 13980514191345. [In Persian]
  • Karayi, Z (2008). Water Diplomacy in Central Asia, Rasad, No. 28. [In Persian]
  • Kaviani Rad, M (2005). Iran-Afghanistan Hydropolitic Relations, Volume 8, Issue 28, Summer 2005, Pages 337-358. [In Persian]
  • khaledi, M (2011). Geography of Tajikistan, Moon History and Geography, November 2011, No. 162, From 108 to 112. [In Persian]
  • Mojtahedzadeh, P (2018). geopolitics philosophy and application (concepts and theories at the age of virtual space), Tehran, Samat Publications. [In Persian]
  • Mokhtari Hashi, H (2013). Hydropolitics of Iran; The Geography of Water Crisis in the Horizon of 2025, Geopolitics Quarterly, year 9, No.3, Spring 2013, Pages 49-83. [In Persian]
  • Mokhtari Hashi, H; Ghaderi Hajat, M (2008). Hydropolytics of the Middle East on the horizon of 2025, Case study: Tigris and Euphrates, Jordan River and Nile River, Geopolitics Quarterly, Fourth Edition, No. 1, Spring 2008, Pages 36-74. [In Persian]
  • Nami, M.H (2011). political geography of iran boundry rivers, Tehran, Sehreh Publications. [In Persian]
  • Nayebpour, M. (2016). Akhal Treaty 1881: context and conditions leading to the signing of the contract. journal of border studies, 4(3), 81-106. [In Persian]
  • Oohara, S (1999). Water situation in the Central Asian region, Studies of Central Asia and the Caucasus, translated by: Abbas Rasuli, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press and Publications. [In Persian]
  • Rasulof, G (2004). Production, export and energy consumption geographically, Quarterly journal of studies in Central Asia and the Caucasus, No. 47. [In Persian]
  • Saleem, A (2017). Tajik Peace Agreement: Lost Legitimacy, BBC Persian. [In Persian] URL: http://www.bbc.com/persian/world-40472056.
  • Shapouri, M; Seifzadeh, S.H (2019). Identity vacancy in the USSR successor countries an opportunity to further influence the Islamic Republic of Iran in this region, Quarterly journal of south-west Asian studies, Summer 2019, No 6, Article code: 13980930204179
  • Shirazi, A; Bagheri Fardin, H; Borna, S (2008). Historical and Cultural Developments in Central Asia, Tehran: Jihad Daneshgahi Publishing Organization, First Edition. [In Persian]
  • Tehrani, N (2007). "Visit Iran and Tajikistan". [In Persian] URL:http://www. asriran.com/fa/pages/?cid=50315.

United Nations Development Programme UNDP (2010). «Aral-Syrdarya Basin, Water Resources, Main River Basins of Kazakhstan», Available at: www.undp.org, (Accessed on: 2/2/2012).