عنوان مقاله [English]
Greater Sistan and Baluchestan have always had a geopolitical role for the central government of Iran throughout its long history. With the great geopolitical game of the nineteenth century by Britain and Russia in Sistan and Baluchistan, the region underwent extensive changes in all aspects of social, political and economic security, the effects of which are evident today. Emmanuel Wallerstein's theory of the world system is based on competition between different countries in different positions. Intense competition between Britain and Tsarist Russia in the late eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in eastern and southeastern Iran, especially Greater Sistan and Baluchistan, in addition to the region's fragmentation and political geography, had devastating effects on the natural economy and its tradition has been the environment, insecurity and consequently the underdevelopment of this region.
When all the concepts related to a phenomenon have not been identified yet, the relationships between these concepts are not well understood. Using a qualitative research method to better understand these phenomena will be a solution. With this approach, the present study also has a qualitative approach and grounded theory foundation has been used as a research method to analyze the relationship between research variables.
Discuss and Explanation
1) During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the capitalist system continued to expand. This long-term presence of Iran in the arena of the capitalist system created the necessary ground for its peripherization in the 19th century. The British government occupied strategic parts of the Indian suburbs, including Sistan and Baluchistan, in order to preserve the vitality of India.
2) In the meantime, insecurity and its negative effects on the development of Greater Sistan and Baluchistan, which is currently divided between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan should not be ignored. The imbalances of security and development in this geopolitical space, underdevelopment and climatic and geographical conditions of Greater Sistan and Baluchistan have been very effective in the structure and geopolitical nature of this geographical area. Very low human development indicators in the mentioned centuries of the region are also among the factors affecting the economy and historical geopolitics of the province.
3) Due to their cultural, religious and social differences, the Baluch ethnic group could not accept the interaction with the modern government, and this interaction turned into a conflict that continues to this day.
4) The world capitalist system occupied vast territories in Asia including Balochistan to gain new markets for its goods. Greater Sistan and Baluchestan as the gateway to India in line with the great British strategy of protecting India from the mid-19th century became strategically important.
The climatic conditions of Sistan and Baluchistan are one of the most important factors in insecurity of Sistan and Baluchistan. Insecurity as the main cause of underdevelopment has been influential in the geopolitical evolution of this geographical space in the last three centuries. Its security and geopolitical stability in the last three centuries has faced serious problems and challenges. Of course, in addition to the natural texture of Greater Sistan and Baluchistan, numerous other human factors have also contributed to its geopolitical instability. The geo-culture of Greater Sistan and Baluchistan is considered as one of the most important factors affecting its security. The incidence of this insecurity has doubled. On the other, the presence and influence of the two world powers, Britain and Russia, in Greater Sistan and Baluchistan, and the rivalry of the two governments over the past three centuries have played a significant role in generating insecurity in the region. Hydro-political problems of the mentioned geopolitical region in the last three hundred years on the Helmand River, in addition to heavy damage to the economy and natural order of the region, due to claims and attacks on the borders of the region, is one of the factors that has a very negative impact on the region's security